Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal) and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07%) and salmon (72.40%). A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.
ABSTRACT. This study aimed to elaborate and characterize meals containing waste from processing of tilapia, tuna, salmon and sardine for human consumption. Carcasses of tilapia and salmon, tuna torsos without fins and sardine tails were cooked, pressed, milled and dehydrated, resulting in waste meal. Greater protein (83.28%) and lower mineral matter (5.31%) were observed in tuna meal. Salmon meal presented greater content of lipids (18.81%) and sardine meal, lower content (3.98%). Tilapia meal presented greater mineral matter (37.66%), calcium (9.37%) and phosphorus (6.08%). Higher content of iron was observed in sardine and tuna meals. Higher amounts of fatty acids from n-3 series were found in salmon (53.71 g kg ). Concerning amino acids, glutamic acid showed greater proportion in all meals, followed by lysine, leucine, glycine and aspartic acid. All meals presented high biological and nutritional values and are regarded as important sources of calcium, phosphorus and iron.Keywords: waste reuse, Nile tilapia, salmon, tuna, sardine.Elaboração de farinhas de resíduos do beneficiamento de peixes para alimentação humana RESUMO. Este estudo objetivou elaborar e caracterizar farinhas de resíduos do beneficiamento da tilápia, atum, salmão e sardinha para consumo humano. Carcaças de tilápia e salmão, troncos de atum sem nadadeiras e caudas de sardinha foram cozidas, prensadas, moídas e desidratadas, resultando nas farinhas. Maior proteína (83,28%) e menor matéria mineral (5,31%) foram observados na farinha de atum. Farinha de salmão apresentou maior teor de lipídeos (18,81%) e a de sardinha, menor teor (3,98%). Farinha de tilápia apresentou maior matéria mineral (37,66%), cálcio (9,37%) e fósforo (6,08%). Observou-se maior teor de ferro nas farinhas de sardinha e atum (121,95 e 106,38 mg kg ). No perfil de aminoácidos, o ácido glutâmico apareceu em maior proporção em todas as farinhas, seguido pela lisina, leucina, glicina e ácido aspártico. Todas as farinhas apresentaram alto valor biológico e nutricional, sendo boa fonte de cálcio, fósforo e ferro.Palavras-chave: aproveitamento de resíduos, tilápia-do-Nilo, salmão, atum, sardinha.
The aim of this study was to develop pizza dough with different levels of tuna meal (Tunnus spp.). In order to produce tuna meal, tuna torsos without fins were used, cooked for 1 hour, pressed, milled and dehydrated for 24 hours at 60 °C. Pizza dough was produced without (0%) or with the addition of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of tuna meal, calculated based on the quantity of wheat flour. The tuna meal and different pizza pastries were analyzed for moisture content, crude protein, total lipids, ash, carbohydrates, caloric value and fatty acid profiles. Microbiological and sensory analyses were also carried out on the pizza pastries. The increasing addition of tuna meal resulted in gains in the crude protein (10.89 to 18.94%), total lipid (4.63 to 5.89%) and ash (2.54 to 3.54%) contents of the pizza pastries, not influencing the moisture content or caloric value. The inclusion of tuna meal linearly increased the quantity of n-3 series fatty acids in the pizza pastry, from 1.56 to 5.93 g/kg with the addition of 20% tuna meal. The ratio between the polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the tuna meal and pizza pastries varied from 1.21 to 1.85. The microbiological analyses showed that the pizza pastries were produced under proper hygiene conditions. It was also observed that the addition of 5 to 20% of tuna meal to the pizza pastry did not significantly (p>0.05) alter the parameters of aroma, flavor, overall impression and purchase intention. It was therefore concluded that the addition of 5 to 20% tuna meal is effective in improving the nutritional value and fatty acid profile of pizza pastry.Keywords: Non-standardized tuna; Dough; Ômega-3; Fishery technology. ResumoO objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver massas de pizza com diferentes níveis de inclusão de farinha de atum (Tunnus spp.). Para a produção da farinha de atum, foram utilizados troncos de atum sem nadadeiras, cozidos por uma hora, prensados, moídos e desidratados por 24 horas a 60 °C. Foram elaboradas massas de pizza sem inclusão (0%) ou com inclusão de 5, 10, 15 e 20% de farinha de atum, sendo estas inclusões calculadas com base na quantidade de farinha de trigo. A farinha de atum e as diferentes massas foram analisadas quanto aos teores de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídeos totais, cinzas e carboidratos, além do valor calórico e do perfil de ácidos graxos. Análises microbiológica e sensorial foram realizadas nas massas de pizza. A crescente inclusão de farinha de atum resultou em aumento do teor de proteína bruta (10,89 a 18,94%), de lipídeos totais (4,63 a 5,89%) e de cinzas (2,54 a 3,54%) nas massas, sem influenciar no teor de umidade e no valor calórico. A inclusão de farinha de atum aumentou linearmente a quantidade de ácidos graxos da série n-3 nas massas, com aumento de 1,56 para 5,93 g/kg, em 20% de inclusão de farinha de atum. A relação entre ácidos graxos poli-insaturados e saturados da farinha de atum e das massas variou entre 1,21 e 1,85. A análise microbiológica demonstrou que as massas foram produzidas em condições adequadas de higi...
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different proportions of soybean and linseed oil to replace fish oil in diets for female lambari (Astyanax altiparanae). A completely randomized design with seven treatments and five replicates was used. The treatments consisted of a diet containing fish oil and six diets containing different proportions of soybean oil (S) and linseed oil (L), 10S/0L, 8S/2L, 6S/4L, 4S/6L, 2S/8L and 0S/10L. The fish that received the highest proportion of linseed oil (0S/10L) had the lowest crude lipid in their carcasses. The highest linolenic acid (18:3n3) concentrations were detected in the carcasses of fish fed diets with high proportions of linseed oil (4S/6L, 2S/8L, and 0S/10L). The highest n6/n3 ratios corresponded to the carcasses of fish fed diets containing the lowest proportions of linseed oil (10S/0L and 8S/2L). The highest levels of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), 22:6n3 (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and EPA+DHA occurred in fish fed diets containing fish oil. Among the fish that received diets with vegetable oils, the EPA+DHA was higher in the fish of the treatments 4S/6L, 2S/8L and 0S/10L. Diets supplemented with a 4S/6L proportion provide adequate deposition of the n3 fatty acids series in the lambari carcass.
-The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of light intensity on the feed training of juvenile giant trahiras (Hoplias lacerdae). A completely randomized design with four light treatments and three replicates was used, and the following light intensities were tested: 204.9; 177.58; 54.64 and 0.00 lux. Juvenile giant trahiras (length = 3.0 ± 0.4 cm and weight = 0.5 ± 0.05 g) were stocked at 6 fish L -1 in 12 rectangular tanks (24 × 20 × 14 cm) containing six liters of water, and subjected to feed training to accept dry diets. At the end of the experiment (21 days), weight gain, length gain, survival, cannibalism, and mortality rates were evaluated. Data were subjected to regression analysis at 5% probability. Different light intensities did not affect growth, survival, mortality, or cannibalism rates in juvenile giant trahiras during the feed training.Therefore, this species can be trained to accept dry diets in the presence or absence of light.
Two experiments were performed. The first aimed to assess the tolerance of fingerlings Astyanax altiparanae to water salinity. Fish were exposed to salinity of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 g NaCl L -1 for 96 hours. The fish mortality was 0%, in the levels of 0, 3 and 6 g L -1 ; 75% in the level of 9 g L -1 and 100% at 12 and 15 g L -1 of common salt. The second experiment aimed to assess the parameters of water quality, mortality and blood glucose during transport. For this, A. altiparanae were stored in plastic bags at 22, 30 and 37 g of fish L -1 stocking densities and salinity of 0, 3, 6 and 9 g L -1 , for. Fish showed similar mortality levels in the different salinities and stocking densities. The increase in fish density reduced the dissolved oxygen levels and salinity decreased the pH. The blood glucose levels were higher in those fish with 0 g L -1 salinity and higher stocking densities. The addition of salt to the water reduces the stress responses of A. altiparanae during transport.Transporte de Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britski, 2000 em água salinizada RESUMO. Foram realizados dois experimentos. O primeiro teve o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância de alevinos de Astyanax altiparanae a salinidade da água. Os peixes foram submetidos às salinidades de 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 ou 15 g de NaCl L -1 durante 96 horas. A mortalidade dos peixes foi de 0%, nos níveis de 0, 3 e 6 g L -1 ; de 75% no nível de 9 g L -1 e de 100% em 12 e 15 g L -1 de NaCl. No segundo experimento, objetivou-se avaliar os parâmetros de qualidade de água, mortalidade e a glicose sanguínea durante o transporte. Para isso, A. altiparanae foram estocados em sacos plásticos nas densidades de 22, 30 e 37 g de peixe L -1 e salinidades de 0, 3, 6 e 9 g de NaCl L -1 . A mortalidade foi semelhante nas diferentes salinidades e densidades de estocagem. O aumento da densidade de peixes reduziu o nível de oxigênio dissolvido e a salinidade da água reduziu o pH. Os níveis de glicose sanguínea foram maiores nos peixes expostos a salinidade de 0 g L -1 e nas maiores densidades de estocagem. A adição de sal na água reduz as respostas de estresse em A. altiparanae durante o transporte.Palavras-chave: densidade, estresse, glicose, oxigênio, sal comum.
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