-The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of photoperiod on locomotor activity, growth and gonadal development in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. A completely randomised design was used, with five treatments (0L:24D, 6L:18D, 12L:12D, 18L:6D and 24L:0D) and four replicates, with the aquarium as the experimental unit. One hundred and sixty fingerlings of tilapia weighing 3.21±0.05 g and measuring 4.35±0.07 cm each were distributed among 20 aquaria of 20 L in a recirculation system with the temperature controlled to 27 °C, with eight fish per aquarium. Feeding was carried out twice daily for 75 days, with extruded feed containing 40% crude protein. The fingerlings subjected to a photoperiod of 12L:12D as well as those under 18L:6D and 24L:0D showed the greatest locomotor activity, whereas those under 6L:18D and 0L:24D showed the lowest activity. Fish subjected to a photoperiod of 18L:6D and 24L:0D showed the highest levels of performance. However, manipulation of the photoperiod did not influence the gonadal development, survival or the appearance of deformities in juvenile Nile tilapia. Under long photoperiods (18L:6D and 24L:0D), fish direct their energy to somatic growth and induce best feed efficiency.
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of Pyrrhulina larvae, Pyrrhulina brevis, under different photoperiods and feeding frequencies. A completely randomized design was used, with four replicates in a 5 × 2 factorial, with five photoperiods (6L:18D, 12L:12D, 16L:8D, 20L:4D, 24L:0D) and two feeding frequencies (two or four times a day). Four hundred larvae with an initial length of 4.6 ± 0.09 mm were randomly distributed in 40, 1‐L containers at a density of 10 larvae/L. Feeding was performed with Artemia nauplii in the ratio of 150 Artemia nauplii/larva/feeding. After 15 days, all larvae were euthanized for measurements of length (mm), final weight (mg), survival rate (%) and larvae uniformity in weight an length (%). The data were subjected to analysis of variance and subsequently, in case of significance, a Tukey test was performed to compare means. There was no interaction between photoperiod and feeding frequency on studied variables (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no influence of feed rate on the same variables (P > 0.05). There was only influence of photoperiod, where the larvae subjected to longest photoperiods (24L:0D and 20L:4D) showed improved weight and length (P < 0.05). Therefore, a photoperiod of 20L:4E, with feeding twice a day is recommended.
Acute and chronic salinity tolerance in adult siamese fighting fish, Betta splendensABSTRACT -Salinity tolerance of Betta splendens was evaluated in a complete randomized design, with six salt concentrations in the water (0; 3; 6; 9; 12 and 15 g common salt/L) with five replications (1 fish/replication). Adult female B. splendens were individually placed in aquariums in an incubation chamber at 26 ± 0.2ºC and 12-hour photoperiod. Fish were fed to satiation, once a day, with commercial diet. Feed intake and survival rate were measured every 12 hours. To evaluate the effect of acute salinity, the mean survival time and median lethal salinity-96 h were calculated, while the chronic effect (18 days) was assessed by calculating the survival salinity maximum and median lethal salinity. The mean survival time was significantly lower at 15 g/L water salinity. The median lethal salinity-96 h calculated was 11.88 g/L, the survival salinity maximum was between 6 and 7 g/L, and the median lethal salinity was 9.35 g/L. There was a significant interaction between feeding time and water salinity. Considering that the B. splendens is a freshwater species, it was concluded that this species demonstrated a high tolerance to water salinity.
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of salinity and feeding frequency on zootechnical performance of Pterophyllum scalare and Heros severus five-day-old post-larvae. Two experiments were performed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 5 × 2 factorial scheme, with 5 different NaCl concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L) and 2 feeding frequencies (2 and 4 times a day). P. scalare showed the highest survival rates (p<0.05) when subjected to salinities of 0, 2 and 4 g/L (97.50–96.25%), and higher values (p<0.05) for standard length (13.22 mm), weight (64.64 mg) and specific growth rate (15.41% per day) when fed 4 times a day. For this species, feeding frequency did not influence survival rates. H. severus, in turn, showed higher survival rates in water without the addition of salt (96.25%) and the highest standard length in salinity of 2 g/L (11.80 mm). H. severus fed 4 times a day and presented the highest values (p<0.05) for most of the growth variables (weight: 57.28 mg, specific growth rate: 18.30% per day). The results of the present study suggest that banded cichlid post-larvae showed higher survival rates in water without salt addition, however, the best growth of this species occurred at the salinity of 2 g/L. In contrast, angelfish post-larvae can be cultivated in salinities of up to 4 g/LNaCl. A feeding frequency of 4 times per day is recommended for both species.
RESUMOCom este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a influência de diferentes fotoperíodos sobre parâmetros fisiológicos relacionados ao estresse em alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (0L; 6L; 12L; 18L; 24L) e quatro repetições, sendo o aquário a unidade experimental. Cento e sessenta alevinos de tilápia, 3,21±0,05g e 4,35±0,07cm, foram distribuídos em 20 aquários de 20 litros, em sistema de recirculação com temperatura controlada em 27 o C e densidade de oito peixes por aquário. Por um período de 75 dias, a alimentação foi realizada duas vezes ao dia com ração extrusada contendo 40% de proteína bruta. Ao final do período experimental, os dados de crescimento, sobrevivência, cortisol, glicose e hematócrito foram submetidos à análise de variância e, posteriormente, em caso de significância (P<0,05), foi realizado um teste Tukey a 5% para comparação das médias. A manipulação do fotoperíodo demonstra não alterar a homeostase dos alevinos, uma vez que não há diferença sobre a sobrevivência, glicose sanguínea, hematócrito e cortisol plasmático (P>0,05). (0L, 6L, 12L, 18L, 24L)
Palavras-chave: cortisol, glicose, homeostase, Oreochromis niloticus
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different photoperiods on physiological parameters related to stress in Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus). A completely randomized design with five treatments
RESUMO Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento, a uniformidade e a sobrevivência das larvas de Betta splendens, submetidas a diferentes fotoperíodos e frequências de alimentação. Foram distribuídos aleatoreamente 480 indivíduos (4,53mg ± 0,32 e 5,51 ± 0,58mm) em 48 recipientes plásticos (1L), com densidade de 10 larvas/ L. Foi utilizado um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial 6x2, com seis fotoperíodos (0L:24E, 6L:18E, 12L:12E, 16L:8E, 20L:4E, 24L:0E) e duas frequências de alimentação (duas ou quatro vezes/ dia). Durante um período de 15 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia, na proporção de 800 náuplios/ larva/ dia. Larvas de beta submetidas aos fotoperíodos de 12L:12E e 16L:8E apresentaram o maior crescimento em peso (P<0,10), enquanto as que foram alimentadas quatro vezes ao dia apresentaram maior crescimento em comprimento e uniformidade (P<0,10). No entanto, os indivíduos que foram alimentados quatro vezes ao dia apresentaram menor sobrevivência quando submetidos aos fotoperíodos de 16L:8E, 20L:4E e 24L:0E (P<0,10). Por outro lado, as larvas submetidas aos fotoperíodos de 12L:12E, 16L:8E e 20L:4E apresentaram maior taxa de sobrevivência quando alimentadas duas vezes ao dia (P<0,10). Portanto, ao se preconizar maior crescimento, uniformidade e sobrevivência das larvas de Betta splendens, recomenda-se a realização da larvicultura dessa espécie sob o fotoperíodo de 12L:12E, com o fornecimento de náuplios de Artemia em duas alimentações diárias.
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