The morphologies of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae) and F. coronata Williams & Watson are reviewed, and the name F. coronata is placed as a junior synonym of the name F. phantasma syn. n. The known geographical distribution and host range of F. phantasma is documented and discussed. An identification key to 12 of the 16 species of Fiorinia known from the Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical Regions is provided.
<p class="Corpoica">A brief introduction to the science of coccidology, and a synopsis of the history, advances and challenges in this field of study are discussed. The changes in coccidology since the publication of the <em>Systema Naturae </em>by Carolus Linnaeus 250 years ago are briefly reviewed. The economic importance, the phylogenetic relationships and the application of DNA barcoding to scale insect identification are also considered in the discussion section. </p><p class="Corpoica"> </p><p class="Corpoica"><strong>Coccidología. El estudio de insectos escama (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) </strong></p><p class="Corpoica">Se presenta una breve introducción a la ciencia de la coccidología y se discute una sinopsis de la historia, avances y desafíos de este campo de estudio. Se hace una breve revisión de los cambios de la coccidología desde la publicación de <em>Systema Naturae </em>por Carolus Linnaeus hace 250 años. También se discuten la importancia económica, las relaciones filogenéticas y la aplicación de códigos de barras del ADN en la identificación de insectos escama. </p>
Species of the genus Acropyga are rarely encountered subterranean ants that rely on mealybugs or aphids to provide their nutritional needs. Female Acropyga (Formicinae) alates of pantropical and Mediterranean species carry mealybugs with their mandibles while swarming and probably inoculate their new nests with these mealybugs. The natural history of Acropyga and other mealybug-tending ant species, a summary of the various reports of Acropyga females toting mealybugs, and a new record from French Guiana are presented here. Also provided are a first report and description of Acropyga alates with mealybugs in Dominican amber dated to the Miocene, a discovery indicating that this intimate association and relatively uncommon behavior has existed for at least 15-20 million years. The mealybugs found with the Acropyga females in amber are related to the hypogaeic genera Eumyrmococcus Silvestri and Neochavesia Williams & Granara de Willink (Pseudococcidae, Rhizoecinae) and represent three new species of a new genus. The genus Electromyrmococcus and the species Electromyrmococcus abductus Williams, Electromyrmococcus inclusus Williams and Agosti, and Electromyrmococcus reginae Williams are described. A piece of Dominican amber containing workers of Azteca alpha Wilson (Dolichoderinae) and 23 scale insects is also presented and the significance of these specimens in Dominican amber is discussed.
The mealybug genus Rastrococcus, comprising twenty‐two species, is revised. A key is presented together with detailed descriptions and illustrations of all the included species. The genus is distributed throughout Australasia and southern Asia, and precise locality and hostplant data are listed. New taxa are R.expeditionis sp.n., R.jabadiu sp.n., R.monachus sp.n., R.rubellus sp.n., R.taprobanicus sp.n. and R.viridarii sp.n. In addition, Lankacoccus gen.n. is erected for Phenacoccus ornatus Green, formerly included in Rastrococcus. New synonymies proposed are P. ballardi Newstead with R.mangiferae (Green) and R.cappariae Avasthi & Shafee with R. iceryoides (Green). Lectotypes are designated for P.ornatus, P.iceryoides, P. ballardi, Dactylopius (Pseudococcus) obtusus Newstead and Pseudococcus mangiferae.
Rastrococcus invadens sp. n. has been accidentally introduced to West Africa where it is causing considerable damage to many plants, especially mango and citrus, in Togo and Ghana. The origin of the mealybug is the Oriental Region, where it is known from a wide area, but it has always been mistaken for R. spinosus (Robinson), a closely related species. Serious outbreaks on mango in some areas of the Oriental Region suggest recent introductions also, although records from other parts of the Oriental Region are as early as 1900.
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