The mechanism of bonding in cold spraying is still a matter of some debate. In this work, copper has been cold sprayed onto aluminium alloy substrates, the surfaces of which had been prepared in a variety of ways. The coating-substrate bonding was assessed via a novel intermetallic growth method along with adhesive pull-off testing, and related to the substrate preparation method. The bond strength has been rationalized in terms of a modified composite strength model, with two operative bonding mechanisms, namely (i) metallurgical bonding and (ii) mechanical interlocking of substrate material into the coating. In most cases, mechanical interlocking is able to account for a large proportion of the total bond strength, with metallurgical bonding only contributing significantly when the substrate had been polished and annealed prior to spraying. In addition, grit-blasting has been shown to significantly reduce the bond strength compared to other substrate preparation methods.
As a solid state joining process, friction stir welding (FSW) has proven to be a promising approach for joining aluminium matrix composites (AMCs). However, challenges still remain in using FSW to join AMCs even with considerable progress having been made in recent years. This review paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of FSW of AMC materials. Specific attention and critical assessment have been given to: (a) the macrostructure and microstructure of AMC joints, (b) the evaluation of mechanical properties of joints, and (c) the wear of FSW tools due to the presence of reinforcement materials in aluminium matrices. This review concludes with recommendations for future research directions.
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