Increasing urbanization in the Brazilian Amazon is associated with a significant change in food habits with processed and industrialized products playing an increasingly important role in the diet and contributing to the nutrition transition in the region.
Forests are sources of wood, non-timber forest products and ecosystems services and goods that benefit society as a whole, and are especially important to rural livelihoods. Forest landscape restoration (FLR) has been proposed as a way to counteract deforestation and reconcile the production of ecosystem services and goods with conservation and development goals. But limited evidence indicates how large-scale forest restoration could contribute to improving local livelihoods. Here, we present a conceptual framework to analyze the effects of large-scale restoration on local livelihoods, and use it to review the scientific literature and reduce this knowledge gap. Most of the literature referred to case studies (89%), largely concentrated in China (49%). The main theme explored was income, followed by livelihoods diversification, off-farm employment opportunities, poverty reduction, equity and the provision of timber and energy as ecosystem services. Nearly 60 percent of the papers discussed the importance of governance systems to socioeconomic outcomes. The reforestation/restoration programs and policies investigated in the studies had mixed socioeconomic effects on local livelihoods depending on other variables, such as availability of off-farm jobs, household characteristics, land productivity, land tenure, and markets for forest products and ecosystem services. We conclude that the effects of large-scale restoration initiatives on local livelihoods may vary due to several factors and is still not clear for many situations; therefore, monitoring over time with clear indicators is needed.Abstract in Portuguese is available with online material.
Não há extensão plana despovoada, mesmo na mais agitada linha dos costões voltados para o mar alto...As paredes brancas das casas, alinhadas geralmente com a frente para o mar, destacando-se do verde escuro das árvores agrupadas ao redor e refletindo-se em dias ensolarados na água do mar, eis uma associação inseparável de elementos caracterizadores da orla costeira. (França, 1954: 89-92) RESUMO: A caracterização, na literatura, das comunidades caiçaras como pescadoras, tradicionais, isoladas, auto-suficientes, primitivas e dotadas de um referencial marítimo é discutida com base numa perspectiva diacrônica. Ressalta-se o papel transformador da chegada do barco a motor e da pesca embarcada para as comunidades caiçaras, que as levou a abandonar total ou parcialmente as atividades agrícolas. Esta mudança é inserida num contexto histórico mais amplo, que considera essa passagem como um dos inúmeros ciclos econômicos pelos quais essas comunidades teriam passado. Criticou-se também a falta de uma abordagem ecológica séria e de uma base empírica confiável na literatura, o que muitas vezes tem levado a considerações na linha do discurso ecológico romântico, que tendem a vincular a imagem dos caiçaras ao mito do "bom selvagem". Argumenta-se que a falta de abordagens multidisciplinares reduz a expressão da riqueza cultural das populações caiçaras.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: caiçaras, antropologia ecológica, populações tradicionais, bom selvagem.
Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practices, including pesticide use. Focusing on the Amazonian frontier, we show that producers have varying access to resources, knowledge, control and reward mechanisms to improve land management practices. With poor education and no technical support, pesticide use by smallholders sharply deviated from agronomical recommendations, tending to overutilization of hazardous compounds. By contrast, with higher levels of technical expertise and resources, and aiming at more restrictive markets, large-scale producers adhered more closely to technical recommendations and even voluntarily replaced more hazardous compounds. However, the ecological footprint increased significantly over time because of increased dosage or because formulations that are less toxic to humans may be more toxic to other biodiversity. Frontier regions appear to be unique in terms of the conflicts between production and conservation, and the necessary pesticide risk management and risk reduction can only be achieved through responsibility-sharing by diverse stakeholders, including governmental and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, financial institutions, pesticide and agricultural industries, producers, academia and consumers.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.