Background: Extra-Amazonian autochthonous Plasmodium vivax infections have been reported in mountainous regions surrounded by the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo state, Brazil.
BackgroundDengue is caused by a RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, which presents four serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4) capable of inducing hemorrhage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of serotype on the outcome of dengue.MethodsThis cross-sectional study included data from dengue cases with serotyping results that occurred between 2009 and 2013 in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Data were accessed through the Information System for Notifiable Diseases. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, Mann–Whitney U test, and logistic regression were performed to assess associations between different serotypes and dengue severity, while considering gender and age.ResultsThe sample consisted of 485 laboratory confirmed dengue cases, of which 46.4 % were females, with median age of 26 years. Regarding overall samples, 77.3 % were caused by DENV-1, 16.1 % by DENV-4, 6.4 % by DENV-2, and 0.2 % by DENV-3. Severe dengue affected 6.6 % of all cases, of which 32.3 % of the cases caused by DENV-2, 6.4 % of those caused by DENV-4, 4.5 % of those caused by DENV-1, and none of those caused by DENV-3. Severe dengue was found to be seven times more frequent among cases of DENV-2 than among those of the other serotypes.ConclusionsThe present study found that cases of DENV-2 had a higher proportion of severe dengue than among those of DENV-1 and DENV-4. Consequently, early detection of serotypes circulating in the territory could be an important approach to prevent increasing numbers of severe outcomes during dengue outbreaks by predicting the health support needed for early diagnoses and treatment of dengue cases.
The purpose of this study was to compare an experimental regimen of atovaquone plus proguanil with the standard regimen of quinine plus tetracycline for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The study was designed as an open, randomized study of men presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated malaria and thick-smear slide confirmation of parasitemia (1000 -100,000 ring forms/mL). Subjects were hospitalized for 28 days to insure medication compliance and to rule out the possibility of reinfections. With 77 patients in each group, the cure rates were 98.7% and 100% for atovaquone plus proguanil and quinine plus tetracycline, respectively. The parasite clearance times (mean, 56 h) and fever clearance times (mean, 19 h) were significantly shorter in the atovaquone plus proguanil group, and there were significantly fewer side effects in the atovaquone plus proguanil group. Atovaquone plus proguanil is an efficacious, easily administered, safe regimen for the treatment of uncomplicated, multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria in Brazil. . Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects, and the ethical ferent regimens raises the cost and the chance of side effects guidelines for Universidade de São Paulo and Walter Reed Army Institute of and leads to poor compliance. The development of new Research were followed. drugs is costly and slow (relative to the development of para-
BackgroundThe transmission of malaria in the extra-Amazonian regions of Brazil, although interrupted in the 1960s, has persisted to the present time in some areas of dense Atlantic Forest, with reports of cases characterized by particular transmission cycles and clinical presentations. Bromeliad-malaria, as it is named, is particularly frequent in the state of Espírito Santo, with Plasmodium vivax being the parasite commonly recognized as the aetiologic agent of human infections. With regard to the spatial and temporal distances between cases reported in this region, the transmission cycle does not fit the traditional malaria cycle. The existence of a zoonosis, with infected simians participating in the epidemiology, is therefore hypothesized. In the present study, transmission of bromeliad-malaria in Espírito Santo is investigated, based on the complete mitochondrial genome of DNA extracted from isolates of Plasmodium species, which had infected humans, a simian from the genus Allouata, and Anopheles mosquitoes. Plasmodium vivax/simium was identified in the samples by both nested PCR and real-time PCR. After amplification, the mitochondrial genome was completely sequenced and compared with a haplotype network which included all sequences of P. vivax/simium mitochondrial genomes sampled from humans and simians from all regions in Brazil.ResultsThe haplotype network indicates that humans and simians from the Atlantic Forest become infected by the same haplotype, but some isolates from humans are not identical to the simian isolate. In addition, the plasmodial DNA extracted from mosquitoes revealed sequences different from those obtained from simians, but similar to two isolates from humans.ConclusionsThese findings strengthen support for the hypothesis that in the Atlantic Forest, and especially in the state with the highest frequency of bromeliad-malaria in Brazil, parasites with similar molecular backgrounds are shared by humans and simians. The recognized identity between P. vivax and P. simium at the species level, the sharing of haplotypes, and the participation of the same vector in transmitting the infection to both host species indicate interspecies transference of the parasites. However, the intensity, frequency and direction of this transfer remain to be clarified.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12936-017-2080-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is affecting almost the entire world, causing more than four hundred thousand deaths and undermining the health care systems, as much as the economy, of the afflicted countries. The strategies for prevention depend on largely lacking information, as infection prevalence and virus pathogenicity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, the pathogenicity, and the speed of infection spreading in a large population in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a serial cross-sectional study designed on a population basis and structured over houses as the sampling units. The sampling consisted of four visits at 15 days intervals in randomly selected census-designated sectors of the State major municipalities (reference municipalities) and two visits at 30 days intervals in smaller municipalities of the same regions of those of reference. At each visit, the investigators sampled houses and sampled one individual in each house for data collection. After the informed consent, the investigators performed a rapid antibody detection test (Celer Technology, Inc) and applied a questionnaire containing clinical and demographic questions. RESULTS: From May 13th to 15th, the investigators performed 6,393 rapid tests in 4,612 individuals of the reference municipalities, 1,163 individuals of the smaller municipalities, and 166 contacts of the positive individuals. Ninety-seven dwellers were positive in the reference municipalities, giving a prevalence of 2.1% (CI 95%: 1.67-2.52%). In the smaller municipalities, the figure was 0.26% (CI 95%: 0.05%-0.75%) (three positives). There was an association of the positive result with female sex (p = 0.013) and houses with five dwellers or more (p = 0.003). Seventy-eight positive individuals reported symptoms in the previous 15 days (80.4%), being anosmia (45.4%), cough (40.2%), and myalgia (38.1%) the more frequent. About one-third of them reported fever (28.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal a still small prevalence of infection in the study area, despite the significant number of sick people overloading the health system. The figures indicate an important underreporting in the area and a frequency that still can grow, making necessary public health actions for the containment of the transmission.
Introdução: A febre maculosa (FM) é uma doença infecciosa, aguda, transmitida por carrapatos, e de gravidade variável. No Brasil, recentemente, tem sido descrita uma nova FM causada por Rickettsia parkeri, cujo perfil clínico, epidemiológico e laboratorial é diferente do perfil da FM causada por Rickettsia rickettsii. Metodologia: trata-se de uma revisão narrativa cujo objetivo é caracterizar a febre maculosa causada por Rickettsia parkeri no Brasil, discutindo as condutas de vigilância epidemiológica, diagnóstico e tratamento. Resultados: A febre maculosa por Rickettsia parkeri no Brasil é produzida, principalmente, pela R. parkeri cepa Mata Atlântica, presente no bioma Mata Atlântica das regiões Sul, Sudeste e Nordeste, onde o carrapato Amblyomma ovale figura como o principal vetor da doença. A suspeição clínica e epidemiológica deve considerar os pacientes que apresentam doença febril e presença da escara de inoculação, associadas à visita em área de mata e ou contatos com carrapatos. A coleta de material biológico (que inclua a escara de inoculação) deve ser realizada, oportunamente, para a caracterização do agente etiológico. O tratamento com antibioticoterapia deve ser iniciado já no início dos sintomas, e todos os casos devem ser notificados ao Ministério da Saúde e investigados imediatamente. A caracterização do ambiente de infecção é importante para melhor compreensão da ecoepidemiologia da doença e desencadeamento de medidas de prevenção e controle. Conclusão: Estabelecemos um protocolo para os profissionais de saúde com as condutas de vigilância epidemiológica, diagnóstico e tratamento para febre maculosa causada por Rickettsia parkeri no Brasil.
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