BackgroundOrganophosphates and pyrethroids are used widely in Brazil to control Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue viruses, under the auspices of the National Programme for Dengue Control. Resistance to these insecticides is widespread throughout Brazil. In Ceará the vector is present in 98% of districts and resistance to temephos has been reported previously. Here we measure resistance to temephos and the pyrethroid cypermethrin in three populations from Ceará and use biochemical and molecular assays to characterise resistance mechanisms.ResultsResistance to temephos varied widely across the three studied populations, with resistance ratios (RR95) of 7.2, 30 and 192.7 in Juazeiro do Norte, Barbalha and Crato respectively. The high levels of resistance detected in Barbalha and Crato (RR95 ≥ 30) imply a reduction of temephos efficacy, and indeed in simulated field tests reduced effectiveness was observed for the Barbalha population. Two populations (Crato and Barbalha) were also resistant to cypermethrin, whilst Juazeiro do Norte showed only an altered susceptibility. The Ile1011Met kdr mutation was detected in all three populations and Val1016Ile in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte. 1011Met was significantly associated with resistance to cypermethrin in the Crato population. Biochemical tests showed that only the activity of esterases and GSTs, among the tested detoxification enzymes, was altered in these populations when compared with the Rockefeller strain.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate that two A. aegypti populations from Ceará are under strong selection pressure by temephos, compromising the field effectiveness of this organophosphate. Our results also provide evidence that the process of reducing resistance to this larvicide in the field is difficult and slow and may require more than seven years for reversal. In addition, we show resistance to cypermethrin in two of the three populations studied, and for the first time the presence of the allele 1016Ile in mosquito populations from northeastern Brazil. A significant association between 1011Met and resistance was observed in one of the populations. Target-site mechanisms seem not to be implicated in temephos resistance, reinforcing the idea that for the studied populations, detoxification enzymes most likely play a major role in the resistance to this insecticide.
Rapid emergence of most vector-borne diseases (VBDs) may be associated with range expansion of vector populations. Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 is a potential vector of West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and lymphatic filariasis. We estimated the potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus under both current and future climate conditions. The present potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed high suitability across low-latitude parts of the world, reflecting the current distribution of the species. Suitable conditions were identified also in narrow zones of North Africa and Western Europe. Model transfers to future conditions showed a potential distribution similar to that under present-day conditions, although with higher suitability in southern Australia. Highest stability with changing climate was between 30°S and 30°N. The areas present high agreement among diverse climate models as regards distributional potential in the future, but differed in anticipating potential for distribution in North and Central Africa, southern Asia, central USA, and southeastern Europe. Highest disparity in model predictions across representative concentration pathways (RCPs) was in Saudi Arabia and Europe. The model predictions allow anticipation of changing distributional potential of the species in coming decades.
Mosquitoes are insects belonging to the order Diptera and family Culicidae. They are distributed worldwide and include approximately 3500 species, of which about 300 have medical and veterinary importance. The evolutionary success of mosquitoes, in both tropical and temperate regions, is due to the various survival strategies these insects have developed throughout their life histories. Of the many adaptive mechanisms, diapause and quiescence, two different types of dormancy, likely contribute to the establishment, maintenance and spread of natural mosquito populations. This review seeks to objectively and coherently describe the terms diapause and quiescence, which can be confused in the literature because the phenotypic effects of these mechanisms are often similar.
BackgroundAedes aegypti is the vector of dengue virus, and its control is essential to prevent disease transmission. Among the agents available to control this species, biolarvicides based on Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (Bti) are an effective alternative to replace the organophosphate temephos for controlling populations that display resistance to this insecticide. The major goal of this study was to determine the baseline susceptibility of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations to Bti, taking into account their background in terms of larvicide exposure, status of temephos resistance and the level of activity of detoxifying enzymes involved in metabolic resistance to insecticides.MethodsPopulation samples were established under insectarium conditions. Larval susceptibility to temephos and Bti was evaluated through bioassays and lethal concentrations of these compounds were determined. Biochemical assays were performed to determine the specific activity of five detoxifying enzymes in these samples.ResultsFourteen populations were characterized and, except for one case, all displayed resistance to temephos. Most populations were classified as highly resistant. The populations also showed increased activity of one or more detoxifying enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases, esterases and mixed function oxidases), regardless of their temephos resistance status. All populations analyzed were susceptible to Bti, and the lethal concentrations were similar to those detected in two laboratory susceptible colonies. The response to Bti showed little variation. A maximum resistance ratio of 2.1 was observed in two untreated populations, while in two Bti-treated populations, the maximum resistance ratio was 1.9. No positive correlation was found between temephos resistance, increased activity of detoxifying enzymes, and susceptibility to Bti.ConclusionsData from this study show that all populations were susceptible to Bti, including twelve untreated and two treated populations that had been exposed to this agent for more than ten years. The temephos resistance and increased activity of detoxifying enzymes observed in thirteen populations was not correlated with changes in susceptibility to Bti. Our data show a lack of cross-resistance between these two compounds; thus, Bti can be used in an integrated control program to fight Ae. aegypti and counteract the temephos resistance that was found among all populations analyzed.
These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract:Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has recently been associated with increased incidence of neonatal microcephaly and other neurological disorders. The virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito bite, although other routes of infection have been implicated in some cases. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is considered to be the main vector to humans worldwide, but there is evidence of other mosquito species, including Culex quinquefasciatus, playing a role in the Brazilian outbreak. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally compared the vectorial competence of laboratory-reared A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. We found ZIKV in the not peer-reviewed) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.The copyright holder for this preprint (which was . http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/073197 doi: bioRxiv preprint first posted online Sep. 2, 2016; 2 midgut, salivary glands, and saliva of artificially fed C. quinquefasciatus. Additionally, we collected ZIKV-infected C. quinquefasciatus from urban areas of high microcephaly incidence in Recife, Brazil. Take into account; these findings indicate that there may be a wider range of vectors for ZIKV than anticipated.Keywords: Zika, microcephaly, Culex, Aedes, vectorial competence, vector control.Zika is classically considered a mild disease whose symptoms include fever, joint pain, rash and, in some cases, conjunctivitis (1). However, the Zika outbreak in Brazil has been associated with an increased incidence of neonatal microcephaly and neurological disorders (2, 3). Zika virus (ZIKV) is a poorly known, small, enveloped RNA virus with ssRNA (+) belonging to the Family Flaviviridae. It was first isolated in April 1947 from a rhesus monkey and in January 1948 from the mosquito species Aedes africanus (4). Since then, several ZIKV strains have been isolated from many samples, mostly mosquitoes, including species from the genera Aedes, Mansonia, Anopheles and Culex (5).The first known Zika epidemic in an urban environment occurred in Micronesia in 2007, with approximately 73% of the human population on Yap island becoming infected (6).Intriguingly, although many Aedes mosquitoes were collected in the field and evaluated for virus detection, no samples were found to be positive for ZIKV (6). Additionally, it is important to highlight that Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) is absent from most islands in the Micronesia archipelago and is very rare on the islands where it is present (6, 7).There is a global consensus among scientists and health agencies that Aedes spp. are the main ZIKV vector in urban areas (WHO, 2016). This is in part because vector competence experiments for ZIKV have been conducted exclusively for species of this genus, mainly A.aegypti (8, 9). Previous laboratory studies (8, 10) suggested that A. aegypti is a ZIKV vector. not peer-reviewed) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission.The copyright holder for this preprint (which was . http://dx.doi...
The entomopathogen Bacillus sphaericus is an important tool for the vector control of Culex sp., and its effectiveness has been validated in field trials. The appearance of resistance to this bacterium, however, remains a threat to its use, and attempts have been made to understand the resistance mechanisms. Previous work showed that the resistance to B. sphaericus in a Culex quinquefasciatus colony is associated with the absence of the ≈ 60‐kDa binary toxin receptor in larvae midgut microvilli. Here, the gene encoding the C. quinquefasciatus toxin receptor, Cqm1, was cloned and sequenced from a susceptible colony. The deduced amino‐acid sequence confirmed its identity as an α‐glucosidase, and analysis of the corresponding gene sequence from resistant larvae implicated a 19‐nucleotide deletion as the basis for resistance. This deletion changes the ORF and originates a premature stop codon, which prevents the synthesis of the full‐length Cqm1. Expression of the truncated protein, however, was not detected when whole larvae extracts were probed with antibodies raised against an N‐terminal 45‐kDa recombinant fragment of Cqm1. It seems that the premature stop codon directs the mutated cqm1 to the nonsense‐mediated decay pathway of mRNA degradation. In‐gel assays confirmed that a single α‐glucosidase protein is missing from the resistant colony. Further in vitro affinity assays showed that the recombinant fragment binds to the toxin, and mapped the binding site to the N‐terminus of the receptor.
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