ABSTRACT. Impact of small variations in temperature and humidity on the reproductive activity and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae). In short space of time increase in temperature and rainfall can affect vector populations and, consequently, the diseases for them transmitted. The present study analyzed the effect of small temperature and humidity variations on the fecundity, fertility and survival of Aedes aegypti. These parameters were analyzed using individual females at temperatures ranging from 23 to 27 °C (mean 25 °C); 28 to 32 °C (mean 30 °C) and 33 to 37 °C (mean 35 ºC) associated to 60±8% and 80±6% relative humidity. Females responded to an increase in temperature by reducing egg production, oviposition time and changing oviposition patterns. At 25 ºC and 80% relative humidity, females survived two-fold more and produced 40% more eggs when compared to those kept at 35 ºC and 80% relative humidity. However, in 45% of females kept at 35 ºC and 60% relative humidity oviposition was inhibited and only 15% females laid more than 100 eggs, suggesting that the intensity of the temperature effect was influenced by humidity. Gradual reductions in egg fertility at 60% relative humidity were observed with the increase in temperature, although such effect was not found in the 80% relative humidity at 25 º C and 30 º C. These results suggest that the reduction in population densities recorded in tropical areas during seasons when temperatures reach over 35 ºC is likely to be strongly influenced by temperature and humidity, with a negative effect on several aspects of mosquito biology.KEYWORDS. Climate changes; dengue; fecundity; fertility; mosquito. RESUMO. Impacto de pequenas variações de temperatura e umidade na atividade reprodutiva e sobrevivência de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae). Em curto espaço de tempo, um aumento na temperatura e precipitação pode afetar a população de vetores e conseqüentemente, as doenças por eles transmitidas. Nesse estudo, analisou-se o efeito de pequenas variações na temperatura e umidade, sobre fecundidade, fertilidade e sobrevivência de Aedes aegypti. Esses parâmetros foram investigados usando-se fêmeas individuais nas temperaturas: 23-27 ° C (média 25 ° C), 28-32 ° C (média 30 ° C) e 33-37 ° C (média 35 º C) associada à umidade relativa: 60 ± 8% e 80 ± 6%. As fêmeas responderam ao aumento da temperatura com redução na produção de ovos, tempo de oviposição e mudança nos padrões de postura. A 25 º C e 80%, fêmeas sobreviveram duas vezes mais e produziram 40% mais ovos, que aquelas mantidas a 35 º C e 80%. No entanto, nos grupos a 35 º C e 60% a postura foi inibida em 45% das fêmeas e apenas 15% puseram mais de 100 ovos, sugerindo que a intensidade do efeito da temperatura seja influenciado pela umidade. Reduções graduais na fertilidade a 60% de umidade relativa foram observadas com o aumento da temperatura, embora esse efeito não tenha sido registrado na umidade de 80%, nas temperaturas de 25 º C e 30 º C. Esses resultados sugerem que a redução na densidade populaciona...
Mosquitoes are insects belonging to the order Diptera and family Culicidae. They are distributed worldwide and include approximately 3500 species, of which about 300 have medical and veterinary importance. The evolutionary success of mosquitoes, in both tropical and temperate regions, is due to the various survival strategies these insects have developed throughout their life histories. Of the many adaptive mechanisms, diapause and quiescence, two different types of dormancy, likely contribute to the establishment, maintenance and spread of natural mosquito populations. This review seeks to objectively and coherently describe the terms diapause and quiescence, which can be confused in the literature because the phenotypic effects of these mechanisms are often similar.
Introduction: Envenomation by scorpion stings is a major public health problem in numerous tropical countries because of its frequent incidence and potential severity. Approximately 1,900 species of scorpions are known in the world, and at least 130 of these have been described in Brazil. Methods: This work reports on 3 child deaths caused by Tityus stigmurus stings and characterizes epidemiological and clinical surveys on pediatric cases of scorpionism recorded in the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica de Pernambuco (Ceatox-PE). Results: Scorpion stings accounted for more than 60% of all cases recorded for venomous animals. The children were from 37 cities of the State of Pernambuco and accounted for 28.8% of the victims treated for scorpion stings, with the highest incidence in the metropolitan area of Recife. Stings occurred throughout the year and slightly increased during the rainy season. Independent of the elapsed time for a prognosis, most cases showed mild symptoms. Three moderate cases that resulted in death featured cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological symptoms. For the fi rst time, death attributed to T. stigmurus was confi rmed by the presence of the scorpion. Conclusions: These results suggest that scorpionism in Pernambuco is a public health problem that needs to be monitored carefully throughout the year by the government.
Neotropical Entomology 36 (6):966-971 (2007) Eclosão, Desenvolvimento e Sobrevivência de Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) sob Diferentes Condições de Temperatura da Água RESUMO -Em áreas tropicais, onde as populações de insetos vetores são particularmente abundantes, as temperatura usualmente variam entre 25°C e 35°C. Considerando a importância dessa variação na determinação da dinâmica populacional de mosquitos, neste trabalho, desenvolvimento e as taxas de eclosão e sobrevivência dos estágios imaturos de Aedes albopictus (Skuse) foram comparados sob temperaturas constantes de 25, 30 e 35°C (em câmaras climatizadas) e ambientes (25°C a 29°C). A taxa de eclosão foi considerada como o total de larvas obtidas após 24h. O período de desenvolvimento, assim como a taxa de sobrevivência larval e pupal foram avaliados diariamente. A taxa de eclosão foi signifi cativamente mais elevada sob temperatura ambiente comparada às constantes, sugerindo que a variação da temperatura pode ser um fator estimulante da eclosão. O tempo médio de eclosão aumentou com a temperatura, variando de 2,8h (25ºC) a 5,2h (35ºC). A duração do período larval apresentou grande variabilidade dentro de cada grupo, embora não tenha diferido signifi cativamente entre os mesmos (11,0 ± 4,19 dias), tendo sido mais longo para indivíduos mantidos na água a 35°C (12,0 ± 4,95 dias) e temperatura ambiente (13,6 ± 5,98 dias). Ao contrário, a sobrevivência das larvas foi fortemente afetada na temperatura mais elevada, onde apenas um indivíduo alcançou o estágio adulto. Esses resultados sugerem que a população de Ae. albopictus de Recife pode estar em processo de adaptação ao aumento de temperatura e que o limite para o desenvolvimento de estágios larvais se encontra próximo a 35°C. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Biologia, vetor, ciclo de vida, limite térmicoABSTRACT -In tropical areas, where vector insects populations are particularly numerous, temperature usually range between 25°C and 35°C. Considering the importance of such temperature variation in determining mosquitoes population dynamics, in this work the developmental, eclosion and survival rates of the immature stages of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were compared under constant 25, 30 and 35°C (using acclimatized chambers) and environmental (25°C to 29°C) temperatures. The hatching rate was considered as total number of larvae recovered after 24h. The development period as well as larval and pupal survival rate were evaluated daily. Eclosion rate was signifi cantly higher under environmental temperature than under the studied constant temperatures, suggesting that temperature variation may be an eclosion-stimulating factor. The mean eclosion time increased with the temperature, ranging from 2.8h (25°C) to 5.2h (35°C). The larval period was greatly variable inside each group, although it did not differ signifi cantly amongst groups (11.0 ± 4.19 days), with individuals showing longer larval stages in water at 35°C (12.0 ± 4.95 days) and environmental temperature (13.6 ± 5.98 days). Oppositely, survival was...
BackgroundDengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap), produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors) were evaluated.MethodsDuring a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3). Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors) and front or back yard (outdoors). The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site.ResultsDuring a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house.ConclusionsAedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically infested by mosquitoes. Low requirements for skilled labor together with easy maintenance and low cost are additional advantages of using this sticky trap.
In this study, the events following application of the insecticide Demand 2.5 concentrated solution (CS) in the field, to control Tityus stigmurus, were investigated. Data on attitudes and practices relating to scorpionism were collected using a questionnaire. During the months of May to July 2005, 69 premises were monitored on different days following insecticide treatment, focusing on scorpion frequency and mortality. According to the results, 42% of the premises showed scorpion incidence, with an average of three specimens per house. The highest incidence was recorded during the first week following the treatment. Only 7% of the specimens were found dead. Most (72%) of the population showed knowledge about prevention and control measures. Despite this, 100% of the premises presented breeding sites, mainly in debris (79.7%). These results indicate that the scorpion control method used by health agents during this investigation was not efficient, and the results suggest that the method may have had a dispersive effect on these animals. Key-words:Community. Scorpion. Pyrethroid. Public health. RESUMONeste trabalho investigou-se os eventos ocorridos após a aplicação do inseticida Demand 2,5 solução concentrada (CS) em campo para controle de Tytius stigmurus. Dados sobre atitudes e práticas relacionados ao escorpionismo foram coletados usando um questionário. Durante os meses de maio a julho/2005, 69 imóveis foram monitorados em diferentes dias após o tratamento com inseticida, focando a freqüência e mortalidade de escorpiões. Segundo os resultados, 42% dos imóveis apresentaram incidência escorpiônica com uma média de três indivíduos/casa. O maior índice de incidência foi registrado na primeira semana após o tratamento. Apenas 7% dos espécimes foram encontrados mortos. A maioria (72%) da população demonstrou conhecer as medidas de prevenção e controle. Apesar disso, 100% das residências apresentaram criadouros, principalmente entulhos (79,7%). Esses resultados indicam que o método para controle escorpiônico usado pelos agentes de saúde, durante a pesquisa não foi eficiente, sugerindo um possível efeito dispersor sobre o animal. Palavras-chaves:Comunidade. Escorpião. Piretróide. Saúde pública.
-The present study investigates new sources of infusion as an oviposition attractant for Aedes aegypti L. Infusions with fetid and non-fetid odors were compared as an oviposition stimulant. Traps baited with infusions of dehydrated cashew leaves (Anacardium occidentale), potato peels (Solanum tuberosum) and graminea (Panicum maximum) were compared as attractants, and the effect of odor (fetid and unfetid) on attractiveness was tested. Oviposition activity changed signifi cantly according to the concentration and type of infusion (F = 4.1279; gl = 2; P = 0.0231). A larger number of eggs were observed in cups containing 50% A. occidentale (non-fetid odor) and 30% P. maximum (fetid odor). When compared in the same cage, comparable oviposition was found between A. occidentale and P. maximum. Moreover, approximately 20% more eggs were recorded in the infusion without odor when compared to the grass infusion and water. These fi ndings suggest A. occidentale as a new stimulant for use in ovitraps for Aedes surveillance and control, with the benefi t of having an agreeable odor.KEY WORDS: Attractive, mosquito, posture, ovitrap Epidemiologically, gravid females are the most important component of the mosquito population and are targeted in mosquito reduction programs and in the active surveillance of disease for the early detection of epidemic events (Macielde-Freitas et al 2008a). Mosquito egg traps (ovitrap) are a current trend as integral components of surveillance efforts, contributing to control efforts and monitoring of mosquito populations in countries with endemic dengue fever. This method was proven effective in detecting early infestations of Aedes aegypti L., particularly when density is low and larval indices are not good indicators (Braga et al 2000, Morato et al 2005. It is also useful in indicating critical areas for control activities (Masuh et al 2008, Regis et al 2008.There is a consensus regarding the use of organic infusions to achieve a better ovitrap performance. Most studies have used infusions of hay (Reiter et al 1991, Chadee et al 1993, Maciel-de-Freitas et al 2008b, white-oak leaf (Ponnusamy et al 2008, Trexler et al 1998, mixed grass (Regis et al 2008) and Panicum maximum (Sant'ana et al 2006, Gama et al 2007. The association of grass infusion, Eleusine indica, with the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the fi eld has also been used (Santos et al 2003), offering the advantage of a long-term duration of traps in the wild. Recent efforts have been made to identify potential synthetic oviposition attractants/repellents for mosquitoes using certain fatty acids and esters from grass infusions (Sant'ana et al 2006) and egg extracts of A. aegypti as oviposition attractants (Ganesan et al 2006). However, different types and concentrations of organic detritus lead to variations in the abundance and types of microorganisms (Yee & Juliano 2006, Murrel & Juliano 2008, which could, in turn, infl uence the potential attraction of the infusion. Thus, the most appropriate org...
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