Sporotrichosis occurs after fungal implantation of Sporothrix spp. in the skin, and is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Here we describe three atypical cases of the disease. The first case report an extra-cutaneous occurrence of the disease with joint infection; the second one describes a patient with bilateral lymphocutaneous form of sporotrichosis; and the third shows a zoonotic cutaneous case with the development of an erythema nodosum as a hypersensitivity reaction. These cases show the disease importance on the region and the necessity of fungal culture to the diagnosis confirmation.
We conducted a molecular epidemiological study to investigate HIV-1 strains in Rio Grande, southern Brazil, searching for an association with transmission mode and risk behavior. Patients (185) identified at an AIDS treatment reference Hospital, from 1994 to 1997, were included; from which 107 blood samples were obtained. Nested PCR was realized once for each sample; for amplified samples (69) HIV subtypes were classified using the heteroduplex mobility assay. Subtypes identified were B (75%), C (22%) and F (3%). All infections with C were diagnosed after 1994. Comparing patients with B and C, no differences were detected regarding demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics; survival analysis did not reveal differences in HIV to AIDS evolution. A higher proportion of injecting drug users, IDU (not significant, p<.07) was found among those with C. This suggests that C may have been introduced in this area through IDU, and is being spread, probably by their sexual partners, to persons with other risk practices.
BackgroundAlcohol abuse is an important public health problem, frequently unrecognized among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and requires investigation and intervention. It is usually associated with lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It can also produce adverse clinical outcomes, such as changes in certain HIV markers, particularly CD4 cell counts and HIV viral loads (VLs). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse among PLWHA, its associated risk factors and effects on CD4 cell counts and HIV VLs in southern Brazil.MethodsBetween December 2012 and July 2013, 343 patients were interviewed at a reference hospital in southern Brazil. The instrument used was the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), and a cutoff of eight points or more was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were also collected. The statistical analysis included a Poisson regression to evaluate the factors associated with alcohol use disorder, and a linear regression was performed to assess the relationship between AUDIT scores and CD4 cell counts and HIV VLs.ResultsAlcohol abuse was present in 28.6% of the respondents, and possible dependence was present in 5%. The risk factors identified included being male, mixed or black skin color, low education and the use of intravenous or inhaled drugs. A higher AUDIT score was associated with a lower CD4 cell count but was not associated with higher HIV VL values.ConclusionsOur results show the importance of screening for alcohol abuse in this group. The prevalence of alcohol abuse was high, and it was associated with socioeconomic factors and the use of illicit drugs. Moreover, AUDIT score negatively affected CD4 cell counts as well.
Background: Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection usually causes self-limited acute hepatitis. In immunosuppressed patients, HEV-3 infection can rapidly progress to chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. In southern Brazil, data on HEV seroprevalence are scarce. Methods: Testing for HEV RNA and antibodies (anti-HEV) was performed for 320 HIV-infected patients followed at the HIV/AIDS Service of the Federal University of Rio Grande between 2012 and 2013, as well as 281 blood donor samples obtained in 2015. Variables associated with anti-HEV positivity were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: HIV and blood donor groups showed similar HEV seroprevalence (6.7% and 7.1%, respectively). Risk factors associated with anti-HEV detection were older age, marital status, a higher number of sexual partners, poor sanitation, and alcohol use (HIV group), and living in a rural area (blood donors). HEV RNA was detected in eight serum samples from HIV-infected patients and in one blood donor, who was also positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgG. Conclusions: The prevalence rates of HEV infection were comparable between HIV-seropositive patients who were not severely immunocompromised and blood donors. The blood donor's HEV isolate showed high similarity with swine HEV strains from Brazilian herds in the same region, thus indicating a potential risk of foodborne and parenteral transmission via blood transfusion.
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