Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is the major source of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is transmitted from dogs to sand flies to humans. To control the spread of this disease, early and accurate detection of infected dogs is critical but challenging. Here we demonstrate the potential of the Dual-Path Platform (DPP(®)) CVL rapid test for detecting K26/K39-reactive antibodies in sera from clinically symptomatic (n=60) and asymptomatic (n=60) Leishmania infantum-infected dogs. For the specificity evaluation, assays were performed using known negative diagnostic serum samples (n=59) and cross-reaction control sera (n=11) from animals born in a VL-free area of Brazil. The diagnostic kit displayed high specificity (96%) but low sensitivity (47%) in identifying parasite-positive dogs without signs of CVL. However, the test sensitivity was significantly higher (98%) in diseased cases, indicating that this convenient test may be useful to identify the most infectious dogs. Efforts should be pursued to obtain a more sensitive DPP-multiplexed test parameter (i.e. based on simultaneous yet separate antibody detection of carefully selected multiple antigens of diagnostic utility) for effective serodiagnosis of early-infected dogs, as this will likely allow more efficient canine removal regimens than those used in practice by public health services.
Alguns insetos transmissores de doenças procriam exclusivamente nas proximidades das residências. O Aedes aegypti, responsável por epidemias de dengue em cidades brasileiras, representa sério risco também para a febre amarela. Com o insucesso da campanha de erradicação do inseto, justifica-se a busca de criadouros fora do alcance das medidas de controle atualmente adotadas. Na Cidade de Vitória, ES, investigou-se a ocorrência de criadouros de Aedes aegypti na água coletada em bromélias nativas, sobre as rochas. Paralelamente, avaliou-se a infestação predial nas áreas urbanas contíguas. Em quatro das cinco áreas investigadas foram encontradas larvas de culicídeos nas bromélias, sendo que em duas foi identificado Aedes aegypti. A presença dos criadouros em bromélias não guardou relação com a infestação predial nas áreas próximas. Torna-se necessário definir se os criadouros em bromélias constituem focos primários do Aedes aegypti, ou se representam uma conseqüência da elevada infestação urbana.
In an endemic rural area of southeast Brazil, surveys confirmed that dogs serve as peridomestic reservoirs of Leishmania infantum. It is likely that the lack of efficient control is because presently used diagnostic tests miss positive dogs. Overall, 57% of the dogs had specific antibodies, but the canine infection was not uniformly fatal and many seropositive dogs remained asymptomatic or even spontaneously recovered. Furthermore, 42% of the human residents became leishmanin-positive reactors and 47% had positive serology at the initial survey, but our estimates also point at a high recovery rate among the infected population with time. The delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to Leishmania was a good indicator of resistance to infection in this particular epidemiologic situation. The lack of any significant differences in infection rates by gender or age indicate that all of the population was at an equal risk of infection and most people were infected in the peridomestic setting.
Abstract. To assess the effect of the rapid removal of potentially infectious dogs on the prevalence and incidence of canine infections, a prospective study was undertaken in an area endemic for Leishmania infantum. We used serological testing based on the rapid DPP rK28 fusion protein chromatographic immunoassay for this dog screening-and-culling intervention trial. The outcome was evaluated by measuring seropositivity and sero-conversion/-reversion rates for canine infection. Our estimates indicated that concomitant detection and elimination of seropositive dogs with active disease may affect the numbers of canine infections and disease burden temporarily, although it is insufficient as a measure to interrupt the zoonotic L. infantum transmission. However, most of the asymptomatic, seropositive dogs continuously exhibit low levels of antibodies and/or reverted, remaining seronegative thereafter. In the process of waiting for an effective vaccine, one option for canine reservoir control may be to identify these possibly genetically resistant animals and promote their expansion in the population.
Aim The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the dispersal of sylvatic triatomines to anthropic habitats is stimulated by degradation of their natural habitat.Location State of Espírito Santo, south-eastern Brazil.Methods We georeferenced records of domiciliary captures of sylvatic triatomines (1996)(1997)(1998)(1999)(2000)(2001)(2002)(2003)(2004)(2005) obtained from the database of the entomological surveillance programme of the Brazilian National Health Foundation. We partitioned the study area into 543 equal hexagons and attributed information on the presence/absence of triatomines and climatic, topographic and biological variables to each. Using generalized additive models (GAMs), we defined the determinant variables for triatomine presence/absence and demarcated the potential areas in which they might occur. We then subjected the hexagons with a high probability of triatomine presence to a second analysis, adding information on the number of domiciliary captures of triatomines and landscape indices that measured quantitative and spatial patterns of forest fragments. We used GAMs to determine the indices that influenced the number of domiciliary captures of triatomines.
ResultsThe presence of triatomines was characterized by a strong positive correlation with variability of terrain slope. This variable was used to demarcate the areas where triatomines were likely to occur. Landscape indices associated with the number of domiciliary captures of triatomines were the number of patches, the fractal dimension index, the total core area and the clumpiness index.
Main conclusionsOur results do not support the hypothesis that domiciliary invasion by sylvatic triatomines is stimulated by environmental degradation. Instead, the results suggest that less degraded areas maintain larger populations of triatomines and consequently present higher indices of dispersal and domiciliary invasion. Particular landscape patterns and dispositions of human dwellings, however, may enhance the probability of triatomines being attracted to the artificial light of dwellings. Initiation of flight and consequent dispersal is a naturally occurring process that allows triatomines to find and colonize areas that favour the survival of their offspring.
Espécimes adultos de Triatoma vitticeps são capturados freqüentemente por moradores em áreas rurais do Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Com o objetivo de determinar o índice de infecção natural desta espécie, examinamos os dejetos de 116 espécimes silvestres, capturados em 27 municípios do estado, após repasto sanguíneo em ave e dejeção espontânea. Destes, 100 (86,2%) estavam infectados por flagelados morfologicamente semelhantes a Trypanosoma cruzi. Detectamos índices de infecção natural de Tritoma vitticeps superiores ao de estudos anteriores. A baixa incidência da doença de Chagas no estado se deve provavelmente a dejeção tardia deste vetor visto que trabalhos sobre especificidade alimentar demonstraram presença marcante de Tritoma vitticeps no intradomicilio e contato freqüente com o homem. O elevado índice de infecção natural observado reforça a necessidade de se manter a vigilância entomológica sobre este triatomíneo.
In this study, we sought to identify sand fly vectors of the Leishmania species that circulate in distinct eco-epidemiological disease-endemic rural areas within the Espírito Santo State in southeastern Brazil. PCR amplification of a conserved region of the minicircle kDNA was used to estimate infection rates in field-captured, peridomestic female sand flies. Only 13 of the 1689 female sand fly specimens (0.77%) actually contained Leishmania DNA. Leishmania braziliensis infections were found in Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, and, for the first time, in Lu. fischeri and Lu. ferreirana. Interestingly, the high rate of genetic polymorphism of the L. braziliensis parasites in one of the disease-endemic areas that were studied may reflect specific transmission cycles involving different sand fly vectors.
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