SUMMARY A deterministic initial-value test case for dry dynamical cores of atmospheric general-circulation models is presented that assesses the evolution of an idealized baroclinic wave in the northern hemisphere. The initial zonal state is quasi-realistic and completely defined by analytic expressions which are a steady-state solution of the adiabatic inviscid primitive equations with pressure-based vertical coordinates. A two-component test strategy first evaluates the ability of the discrete approximations to maintain the steady-state solution. Then an overlaid perturbation is introduced which triggers the growth of a baroclinic disturbance over the course of several days.The test is applied to four very different dynamical cores at varying horizontal and vertical resolutions. In particular, the NASA/NCAR Finite Volume dynamics package, the National Center for Atmospheric Research spectral transform Eulerian and the semi-Lagrangian dynamical cores of the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3 are evaluated. In addition, the icosahedral finite-difference model GME of the German Weather Service is tested. These hydrostatic dynamical cores represent a broad range of numerical approaches and, at very high resolutions, provide independent reference solutions. The paper discusses the convergence-with-resolution characteristics of the schemes and evaluates the uncertainty of the high-resolution reference solutions.
We present an analysis of version 5.1 of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5.1) at a high horizontal resolution. Intercomparison of this global model at approximately 0.25 , 1 , and 2 is presented for extreme daily precipitation as well as for a suite of seasonal mean fields. In general, extreme precipitation amounts are larger in high resolution than in lower-resolution configurations. In many but not all locations and/or seasons, extreme daily precipitation rates in the high-resolution configuration are higher and more realistic. The high-resolution configuration produces tropical cyclones up to category 5 on the SaffirSimpson scale and a comparison to observations reveals both realistic and unrealistic model behavior. In the absence of extensive model tuning at high resolution, simulation of many of the mean fields analyzed in this study is degraded compared to the tuned lower-resolution public released version of the model.
Although a theory of the climatology of tropical cyclone formation remains elusive, high-resolution climate models can now simulate many aspects of tropical cyclone climate. T he effect of climate change on tropical cyclones has been a controversial scientific issue for a number of years. Advances in our theoretical understanding of the relationship between climate and tropical cyclones have been made, enabling us to understand better the links between the mean climate and the potential intensity (PI; the theoretical maximum intensity of a tropical cyclone for a given climate condition) of tropical cyclones. Improvements in the capabilities of climate models, the main tool used to predict future climate, have enabled them to achieve a considerably improved and more credible simulation of the present-day climatology of tropical cyclones. Finally, the increasing ability of such models to predict the interannual variability of tropical cyclone formation in various regions of the globe indicates that they are capturing some of the essential physical relationships governing the links between climate and tropical cyclones. HURRICANES AND CLIMATEPrevious climate model simulations, however, have suggested some ambiguity in projections of future numbers of tropical cyclones in a warmer world. While many models have projected fewer tropical cyclones globally (Sugi et al. 2002;Bengtsson et al. 2007b; Gualdi et al. 2008; Knutson et al. 2010), other climate models and related downscaling methods have suggested some increase in future numbers (e.g., Broccoli and Manabe 1990;Haarsma et al. 1993; Emanuel 2013a). When future projections for individual basins are made, the issue becomes more serious: for example, for the Atlantic basin there appears to be little consensus on the future number of tropical cyclones or on the relative importance of forcing factors such as aerosols or increases in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration. One reason could be statistical: annual numbers of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic are relatively small, making the identification of such storms sensitive to the detection method used.Further, there is substantial spread in projected responses of regional tropical cyclone (TC) frequency and intensity over the twenty-first century from downscaling studies (Knutson et al. 2007; Emanuel 2013a). Interpreting the sources of those differences is complicated by different projections of large-scale climate and by differences in the present-day reference period and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets used. A natural question is whether the diversity in responses to projected twenty-firstcentury climate of each of the studies is primarily | a reflection of uncertainty arising from different large-scale forcing (as has been suggested by, e.g., Villarini et al. 2011;Villarini and Vecchi 2012;Knutson et al. 2013) or whether this spread reflects principally different inherent sensitivities across the various downscaling techniques, even including different sensitivity of responses within the same model due to...
In an effort to study the applicability of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) techniques to atmospheric models, an interpolation-based spectral element shallow-water model on a cubed-sphere grid is compared to a block-structured finite-volume method in latitude-longitude geometry. Both models utilize a nonconforming adaptation approach that doubles the resolution at fine-coarse mesh interfaces. The underlying AMR libraries are quad-tree based and ensure that neighboring regions can only differ by one refinement level. The models are compared via selected test cases from a standard test suite for the shallow-water equations, and via a barotropic instability test. These tests comprise the passive advection of a cosine bell and slotted cylinder, a steady-state geostrophic flow, a flow over an idealized mountain, a Rossby-Haurwitz wave, and the evolution of a growing barotropic wave. Both static and dynamics adaptations are evaluated, which reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the AMR techniques. Overall, the AMR simulations show that both models successfully place static and dynamic adaptations in local regions without requiring a fine grid in the global domain. The adaptive grids reliably track features of interests without visible distortions or noise at mesh interfaces. Simple threshold adaptation criteria for the geopotential height and the relative vorticity are assessed.
A variable-resolution option has been added within the spectral element (SE) dynamical core of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). CAM-SE allows for static refinement via conforming quadrilateral meshes on the cubed sphere. This paper investigates the effect of mesh refinement in a climate model by running variable-resolution (var-res) simulations on an aquaplanet. The variable-resolution grid is a 28 (;222 km) grid with a refined patch of 0.258 (;28 km) resolution centered at the equator. Climatology statistics from these simulations are compared to globally uniform runs of 28 and 0.258. A significant resolution dependence exists when using the CAM version 4 (CAM4) subgrid physical parameterization package across scales. Global cloud fraction decreases and equatorial precipitation increases with finer horizontal resolution, resulting in drastically different climates between the uniform grid runs and a physics-induced grid imprinting in the var-res simulation. Using CAM version 5 (CAM5) physics significantly improves cloud scaling at different grid resolutions. Additional precipitation at the equator in the highresolution mesh results in collocated zonally anomalous divergence in both var-res simulations, although this feature is much weaker in CAM5 than CAM4. The equilibrium solution at each grid spacing within the var-res simulations captures the majority of the resolution signal of the corresponding globally uniform grids. The var-res simulation exhibits good performance with respect to wave propagation, including equatorial regions where waves pass through grid transitions. In addition, the increased frequency of high-precipitation events in the refined 0.258 area within the var-res simulations matches that observed in the global 0.258 simulations.
Idealised studies of key dynamical features of the atmosphere provide insight into the behaviour of atmospheric models. A very important, well understood, aspect of midlatitude dynamics is baroclinic instability. This can be idealised by perturbing a vertically sheared basic state in geostrophic and hydrostatic balance. An unstable wave mode then results with exponential growth (due to linear dynamics) in time until, eventually, nonlinear effects dominate and the wave breaks. A new, unified, idealised baroclinic instability test case is proposed. This improves on previous ones in three ways. First, it is suitable for both deep‐ and shallow‐atmosphere models. Second, the constant surface pressure and zero surface geopotential of the basic state makes it particularly well‐suited for models employing a pressure‐ or height‐based vertical coordinate. Third, the wave triggering mechanism selectively perturbs the rotational component of the flow; this, together with a vertical tapering, significantly improves dynamic balance.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.