Abstract. Climate simulation codes, such as the Community Earth System Model (CESM), are especially complex and continually evolving. Their ongoing state of development requires frequent software verification in the form of quality assurance to both preserve the quality of the code and instill model confidence. To formalize and simplify this previously subjective and computationally expensive aspect of the verification process, we have developed a new tool for evaluating climate consistency. Because an ensemble of simulations allows us to gauge the natural variability of the model's climate, our new tool uses an ensemble approach for consistency testing. In particular, an ensemble of CESM climate runs is created, from which we obtain a statistical distribution that can be used to determine whether a new climate run is statistically distinguishable from the original ensemble. The CESM ensemble consistency test, referred to as CESM-ECT, is objective in nature and accessible to CESM developers and users. The tool has proven its utility in detecting errors in software and hardware environments and providing rapid feedback to model developers.
A variable-resolution option has been added within the spectral element (SE) dynamical core of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). CAM-SE allows for static refinement via conforming quadrilateral meshes on the cubed sphere. This paper investigates the effect of mesh refinement in a climate model by running variable-resolution (var-res) simulations on an aquaplanet. The variable-resolution grid is a 28 (;222 km) grid with a refined patch of 0.258 (;28 km) resolution centered at the equator. Climatology statistics from these simulations are compared to globally uniform runs of 28 and 0.258. A significant resolution dependence exists when using the CAM version 4 (CAM4) subgrid physical parameterization package across scales. Global cloud fraction decreases and equatorial precipitation increases with finer horizontal resolution, resulting in drastically different climates between the uniform grid runs and a physics-induced grid imprinting in the var-res simulation. Using CAM version 5 (CAM5) physics significantly improves cloud scaling at different grid resolutions. Additional precipitation at the equator in the highresolution mesh results in collocated zonally anomalous divergence in both var-res simulations, although this feature is much weaker in CAM5 than CAM4. The equilibrium solution at each grid spacing within the var-res simulations captures the majority of the resolution signal of the corresponding globally uniform grids. The var-res simulation exhibits good performance with respect to wave propagation, including equatorial regions where waves pass through grid transitions. In addition, the increased frequency of high-precipitation events in the refined 0.258 area within the var-res simulations matches that observed in the global 0.258 simulations.
We evaluate the Community ocean Vertical Mixing project version of the K‐profile parameterization (KPP) for modeling upper ocean turbulent mixing. For this purpose, one‐dimensional KPP simulations are compared across a suite of oceanographically relevant regimes against horizontally averaged large eddy simulations (LESs). We find the standard configuration of KPP consistent with LES across many forcing regimes, supporting its physical basis. Our evaluation also motivates recommendations for KPP best practices within ocean circulation models and identifies areas where further research is warranted. The original treatment of KPP recommends the matching of interior diffusivities and their gradients to the KPP‐predicted values computed in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL). However, we find that difficulties in representing derivatives of rapidly changing diffusivities near the base of the OSBL can lead to loss of simulation fidelity. To mitigate this difficulty, we propose and evaluate two computationally simpler approaches: (1) match to the internal predicted diffusivity alone and (2) set the KPP diffusivity to 0 at the OSBL base. We find the KPP entrainment buoyancy flux to be sensitive to vertical grid resolution and details of how to diagnose the KPP boundary layer depth. We modify the KPP turbulent shear velocity parameterization to reduce resolution dependence. Additionally, an examination of LES vertical turbulent scalar flux budgets shows that the KPP‐parameterized nonlocal tracer flux is incomplete due to the assumption that it solely redistributes the surface tracer flux. This result motivates further studies of the nonlocal flux parameterization.
High-resolution climate simulations require tremendous computing resources and can generate massive datasets. At present, preserving the data from these simulations consumes vast storage resources at institutions such as the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The historical data generation trends are economically unsustainable, and storage resources are already beginning to limit science objectives. To mitigate this problem, we investigate the use of data compression techniques on climate simulation data from the Community Earth System Model. Ultimately, to convince climate scientists to compress their simulation data, we must be able to demonstrate that the reconstructed data reveals the same mean climate as the original data, and this paper is a first step toward that goal. To that end, we develop an approach for verifying the climate data and use it to evaluate several compression algorithms. We find that the diversity of the climate data requires the individual treatment of variables, and, in doing so, the reconstructed data can fall within the natural variability of the system, while achieving compression rates of up to 5:1.
Abstract. We evaluate the performance of the Community Atmosphere Model's (CAM) spectral element method on variable-resolution grids using the shallow-water equations in spherical geometry. We configure the method as it is used in CAM, with dissipation of grid scale variance, implemented using hyperviscosity. Hyperviscosity is highly scale selective and grid independent, but does require a resolutiondependent coefficient. For the spectral element method with variable-resolution grids and highly distorted elements, we obtain the best results if we introduce a tensor-based hyperviscosity with tensor coefficients tied to the eigenvalues of the local element metric tensor. The tensor hyperviscosity is constructed so that, for regions of uniform resolution, it matches the traditional constant-coefficient hyperviscosity. With the tensor hyperviscosity, the large-scale solution is almost completely unaffected by the presence of grid refinement. This later point is important for climate applications in which long term climatological averages can be imprinted by stationary inhomogeneities in the truncation error. We also evaluate the robustness of the approach with respect to grid quality by considering unstructured conforming quadrilateral grids generated with a well-known grid-generating toolkit and grids generated by SQuadGen, a new open source alternative which produces lower valence nodes.
The Marine Biogeochemistry Library (MARBL) is a prognostic ocean biogeochemistry model that simulates marine ecosystem dynamics and the coupled cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, silicon, and oxygen. MARBL is a component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM); it supports flexible ecosystem configuration of multiple phytoplankton and zooplankton functional types; it is also portable, designed to interface with multiple ocean circulation models. Here, we present scientific documentation of MARBL, describe its configuration in CESM2 experiments included in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 6 (CMIP6), and evaluate its performance against a number of observational data sets. The model simulates present‐day air‐sea CO2 flux and many aspects of the carbon cycle in good agreement with observations. However, the simulated integrated uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is weak, which we link to poor thermocline ventilation, a feature evident in simulated chlorofluorocarbon distributions. This also contributes to larger‐than‐observed oxygen minimum zones. Moreover, radiocarbon distributions show that the simulated circulation in the deep North Pacific is extremely sluggish, yielding extensive oxygen depletion and nutrient trapping at depth. Surface macronutrient biases are generally positive at low latitudes and negative at high latitudes. CESM2 simulates globally integrated net primary production (NPP) of 48 Pg C yr−1 and particulate export flux at 100 m of 7.1 Pg C yr−1. The impacts of climate change include an increase in globally integrated NPP, but substantial declines in the North Atlantic. Particulate export is projected to decline globally, attributable to decreasing export efficiency associated with changes in phytoplankton community composition.
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