Background: Although psoriasis occurs worldwide, the prevalence varies considerably between different peoples and regions. In China, a questionnaire-based study was carried out in 1987 and the prevalence of psoriasis was found to be 0.12%. Since then, no large-scale, populationbased study has been reported. Objectives: To obtain the accurate figures for the prevalence of psoriasis in China. Methods: A population-based survey was conducted in 6 cities. The cluster sampling method was used to select communities in each city. The subjects were required to fill out self-reporting questionnaires during a face-to-face interview and also received physical examination by dermatologists. Results: 19,974 subjects were visited and 17,345 completed the questionnaires and received dermatological examination. 102 subjects (0.59%) were found to have psoriasis. After standardization, the prevalence of psoriasis was 0.47%. The prevalence of psoriasis in males and females was 0.54% and 0.44% respectively. 97.06% of the patients had psoriasis vulgaris. 28.43% of the patients reported a family history of psoriasis. 59.80% of patients experienced a negative influence on the quality of life. Conclusions: This population-based and dermatologist-confirmed study showed that the prevalence of psoriasis in China is 0.47%, which is higher than that reported in 1987.
It is unknown whether transforming growth factor ␤1 (TGF-␤1) signaling uniformly participates in fibrogenic chronic liver diseases, irrespective of the underlying origin, or if other cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-13 share in fibrogenesis (e.g., due to regulatory effects on type I pro-collagen expression). TGF-␤1 signaling events were scored in 396 liver tissue samples from patients with diverse chronic liver diseases, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Schistosoma japonicum infection, and steatosis/steatohepatitis. Phospho-Smad2 staining correlated significantly with fibrotic stage in patients with HBV infection (n ؍ 112, P < 0.001) and steatosis/steatohepatitis (n ؍ 120, P < 0.01), but not in patients with HCV infection (n ؍ 77, P > 0.05). In tissue with HBx protein expression, phospho-Smad2 was detectable, suggesting a functional link between viral protein expression and TGF-␤1 signaling. For IL-13, immunostaining correlated with fibrotic stage in patients with HCV infection and steatosis/steatohepatitis. IL-13 protein was more abundant in liver tissue lysates from three HCV patients compared with controls, as were IL-13 serum levels in 68 patients with chronic HCV infection compared with 20 healthy volunteers (72.87 ؎ 26.38 versus 45.41 ؎ 3.73, P < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry results suggest that IL-13-mediated liver fibrogenesis may take place in the absence of phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 6 signaling. In a subgroup of patients with advanced liver fibrosis (stage >3), neither TGF-␤ nor IL-13 signaling was detectable. Conclusion: Depending on the cause of liver damage, a predominance of TGF-␤ or IL-13 signaling is found. TGF-␤1 predominance is detected in HBV-related liver fibrogenesis and IL-13 predominance in chronic HCV infection. In some instances, the underlying fibrogenic mediator remains enigmatic. (HEPATOLOGY 2009;50:230-243.)
BackgroundMicroRNA (miRNA) has been found in human blood. It has been increasingly suggested that miRNAs may serve as biomarkers for diseases. We examined the potential of circulating miRNA to serve as predictors of atrial fibrillation (AF).Methodology/Principal FindingsDuring the discovery stage of this project, we used massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) to carry out an in-depth analysis of the miRNA expression profile (miRNome) in 5 healthy controls, 5 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) alone, and 5 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (PersAF) alone. Twenty-two specific miRNAs were found to be dysregulated in each PAF group, PersAF group, or control group. Four candidate microRNAs (miRNA-146a, miRNA-150, miRNA-19a, and miRNA-375) met our selection criteria and were evaluated in an independent cohort of 90 plasma samples using TaqMan miRNA quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We found miRNA-150 levels to be reduced by a factor of approximately 17 in PAF relative to controls and a factor of approximately 20 in PersAF relative to controls (P<.0001). Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the reduced miRNA-150 expression levels (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5 to 3.57, P<0.001), age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.73, P<0.001), and Left atrial diameter (LAD) (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.8, P<0.001). Each was independently associated with AF. Much of the identified target genes related to AF were part of the inflammatory response system. We found that plasma levels of CRP were negatively correlated with the plasma levels of miRNA-150.Conclusions/SignificanceIn summary, we firstly found that plasma miRNA-150 levels in from AF patients were substantially lower than that from healthy people. Circulating reduced miRNA-150 was significantly associated with AF.
Immunity acquired from infection or vaccination protects humans from symptomatic hepatitis E. However, whether the risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is reduced by the immunity remains unknown. To understand this issue, a cohort with 12 409 participants randomized to receive the hepatitis E vaccine Hecolin(®) or placebo were serologically followed up for 2 years after vaccination. About half (47%) of participants were initially seropositive. A total of 139 infection episodes, evidenced by four-fold or greater rise of anti-HEV level or positive seroconversion, occurred in participants who received three doses of treatment. Risk of infection was highest among the baseline seronegative placebo group participants (2.04%). Pre-existing immunity and vaccine-induced immunity lower the risk significantly, to 0.52% and 0.30%, respectively. In conclusion, both vaccine-induced and naturally acquired immunity can effectively protect against HEV infection.
Regulated necrosis has been reported to exert an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Damage to renal tubular epithelial cells and subsequent cell death initiate the progression of acute kidney injury (AKI) and subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD). We found that ferroptosis appeared in tubular epithelial cells (TECs) of various human kidney diseases and the upregulation of tubular proferroptotic gene ACSL4 was correlated with renal function in patients with acute kidney tubular injury. XJB-5-131, which showed high affinity for TECs, attenuated I/R-induced renal injury and inflammation in mice by specifically inhibiting ferroptosis rather than necroptosis and pyroptosis. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) indicated that ferroptosis-related genes were mainly expressed in tubular epithelial cells after I/R injury, while few necroptosis- and pyroptosis-associated genes were identified to express in this cluster of cell. Taken together, ferroptosis plays an important role in renal tubular injury and the inhibition of ferroptosis by XJB-5-131 is a promising therapeutic strategy for protection against renal tubular cell injury in kidney diseases.
Chemodrug resistance is a major reason accounting for tumor recurrence. Given the mechanistic complexity of chemodrug resistance, molecular inhibitors and targeting drugs often fail to eliminate drug-resistant cancer cells, and sometimes even promote chemoresistance by activating alternative pathways. Here, by exploiting biochemical fragility of high-level but dynamically balanced cellular redox homeostasis in drug-resistant cancer cells, we design a nanosized copper/catechol-based metal–organic framework (CuHPT) that effectively disturbs this homeostasis tilting the balance toward oxidative stress. Within drug-resistant cells, CuHPT starts disassembly that is triggered by persistent consumption of cellular glutathione (GSH). CuHPT disassembly simultaneously releases two structural elements: catechol ligands and reductive copper ions (Cu+). Both of them cooperatively function to amplify the production of intracellular radical oxidative species (ROS) via auto-oxidation and Fenton-like reactions through exhausting GSH. By drastically heightening cellular oxidative stress, CuHPT exhibits selective and potent cytotoxicity to multiple drug-resistant cancer cells. Importantly, CuHPT effectively inhibits in vivo drug-resistant tumor growth and doubles the survival time of tumor-bearing mice. Thus, along with CuHPT’s good biocompatibility, our biochemical, cell biological, preclinical animal model data provide compelling evidence supporting the notion that this copper-based MOF is a predesigned smart therapeutic against drug-resistant cancers through precisely deconstructing their redox homeostasis.
Macrophages play an important role in renal injury and repair after acute kidney injury (AKI) and the subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD) that often results. However, as macrophages have a high degree of plasticity and heterogeneity, the function(s) of macrophage subtypes in AKI-to-CKD progression are not fully understood. Here, we focused on Ly6C − macrophages, which are derived from the embryonic yolk sac and post-development become resident in the kidneys. We found that C–C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) deficiency, which blocks the migration of Ly6C + macrophages from the bone marrow to the sites of injury, alleviated ischemia-induced AKI in mice. Unexpectedly, though, CCR2 deficiency worsened the subsequent renal fibrosis, which was marked by notable intra-renal infiltration of Ly6C − macrophages. These Ly6C − macrophages were greater in number in both the acute and chronic phases after ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in kidneys of wild type (WT) mice, and we showed them to be derived from the bone marrow by bone marrow chimerism. Clodronate Liposomes (CLs)-mediated depletion of renal Ly6C − macrophages in CCR2 − /− mice or in WT mice after I/R alleviated the renal injury and fibrosis. On the contrary, adoptive transfer of Ly6C − macrophages from injured kidneys of WT mice into immune-deficient mice was sufficient to induce renal injury and fibrosis. Transcriptome sequencing of Ly6C − macrophages from injured kidneys revealed that they secreted various cytokines and growth factors, which were associated with the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. This transdifferentiation effect was further supported by in vitro studies showing that Ly6C − macrophages induced the secretion of extracellular matrix proteins from co-cultured fibroblasts. In conclusion, the presence of bone marrow-derived Ly6C − macrophages after ischemia induces AKI and worsens subsequent CKD.
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