The widespread use of azoles has led to increasing azole resistance among Candida albicans strains. One mechanism of azole resistance involves point mutations in the ERG11 gene, which encodes the target enzyme (cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14α-demethylase). In the present study, we amplified and sequenced the ERG11 gene of 23 C. albicans clinical isolates. Seventeen mutations encoding distinct amino acid substitutions were found, of which seven (K143Q, Y205E, A255V, E260V, N435V, G472R, and D502E) were novel. We further verified the contribution of the amino acid substitutions to azole resistance using site-directed mutagenesis of the ERG11 gene to recreate these mutations for heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We observed that substitutions A114S, Y132H, Y132F, K143R, Y257H, and a new K143Q substitution contributed to significant increases (≧fourfold) in fluconazole and voriconazole resistance; changes in itraconazole resistance were not significant (≦twofold).
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) refer to functional cellular RNAs molecules longer than 200 nucleotides in length. Unlike microRNAs, which have been widely studied, little is known about the enigmatic role of lncRNAs. However, lncRNAs have motivated extensively attention in the past few years and are emerging as potentially important regulators in pathological processes, including in cancer. We now understand that lncRNAs play role in cancer through their interactions with DNA, protein, and RNA in many instances. Moreover, accumulating evidence has recognized that large classes of lncRNAs are functional for ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, the biological phenomena and molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in ovarian cancer remain to be better identified. In this review, we outline the dysregulated expression of lncRNAs and their potential clinical implications in ovarian cancer, with a particular emphasis on discussing the well characterized mechanisms underlying lncRNAs in ovarian cancer.
Circular RNA (circRNA), a type of non-coding RNA, can promote or suppress tumorigenesis. To investigate the involvement of circRNA in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we performed a circRNA microarray analysis on paired DLBCL and normal tissues. We identified a novel and highly stable circRNA originating from the back-splicing of APC exon 7 to exon 14, circ-APC (hsa_circ_0127621), which was downregulated in DLBCL tissues, cell lines and plasma. In gain-of-function experiments, ectopic expression of circ-APC inhibited DLBCL cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Cytoplasmic circ-APC functioned as a sponge for miR-888, thus post-transcriptionally upregulating APC by alleviating the repressive effects of miR-888 on this gene. Further, nuclear circ-APC bound to the APC promoter and recruited the DNA demethylase TET1, thereby transcriptionally upregulating APC. Upon its upregulation, APC dampened the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by reducing the accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus, thereby retarding DLBCL growth. Clinically, circ-APC was found to be an effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for patients with DLBCL. Our study suggests that circ-APC is a novel proliferation inhibitor, and that restoring circ-APC expression may be a promising therapeutic approach for DLBCL patients.
Autophagy is a conserved cellular self-digestion pathway for maintenance of homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as aging-related diseases, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Of special note is that accumulating data suggest an intimate relationship between autophagy and ovarian carcinoma. Autophagy is well identified to act as either as a tumor-suppressor or as a tumor-promoter in ovarian carcinoma. The exact function of autophagy in ovarian carcinoma is highly dependent on the circumstances of cancer including hypoxic, nutrient-deficient, chemotherapy and so on. However, the mechanism underlying autophagy associated with ovarian carcinoma remains elusive, the precise role of autophagy in ovarian carcinoma also remains undetermined. In this review, we tried to sum up and discuss recent research achievements of autophagy in ovarian cancer. Moreover, waves of novel therapies ways for ovarian carcinoma based on the functions of autophagy were collected.
Naringin (NRG), a bioflavonoid found in citrus fruit extracts, has been pharmacologically evaluated as a potential anticancer agent. This study confirmed a novel mechanism of the anticancer effects of NRG in the human cervical cancer HeLa cell line (HeLa cells). Exposure of HeLa cells to NRG resulted in growth inhibition, as evidenced by a decrease in cell viability. In addition, NRG treatment induced apoptosis, as indicated by the increased apoptotic percentage and the cleaved caspase-3 expression. Importantly, exposure of the cells to NRG attenuated the expression levels of phosphorylated (p) nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cysteinyl aspartate proteinase-1 (caspase-1). Treatment with PDTC (an inhibitor of NF-κB) or NS-398 (an inhibitor of COX-2) or SC-3069 (an inhibitor of caspase-1) markedly induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Treatment with PDTC or NS-398 also reduced caspase-1 expression. Interestingly, PDTC treatment blocked the expression of COX-2 and NS-398 reduced the p-NF-κB p65 expression. Taken together, this study provides novel evidence that NRG induces growth inhibition and apoptosis by inhibiting the NF-κB/COX-2-caspase-1 pathway and that a positive interaction between NF-κB and COX-2 pathway contributes to the growth and antiapoptotic effect in HeLa cells.
BackgroundMirk/Dyrk1B contributes to G0 arrest by destabilization of cyclin D1 and stabilization of p27kip1 to maintain the viability of quiescent human cancer cells, and it could be negatively regulated by mitogenic-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. This study was performed to investigate the effect of Mirk/Dyrk1B on cell cycle and survival of human cancer cells involving MAPK/ERK signaling.MethodsThe correlations between Mirk/Dyrk1B expression and active ERK1/2 detected by western blot in both ovarian cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were analyzed by simple regression. Mirk/Dyrk1B unique phosphopeptides with sites associated with Mirk/Dyrk1B protein were isolated and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics analysis. The human cancer cells were treated with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and/or U0126, an inhibitor of MEK for indicated duration, followed by investigating the alterations of cell cycle and apoptosis as well as related proteins examined by flow cytometry and Western blot, respectively.ResultsOur study demonstrated the widely expressed Mirk/Dyrk1B proteins in the human cancer cells were positively correlated with the levels of activated ERK1/2. Moreover, Mirk/Dyrk1B protein expressions consistent with the tyrosine autophosphorylated levels in the human cancer cells were increased by U0126 or growth factor-depleted culture. Conversely, knockdown of Mirk/Dyrk1B by siRNA led to up-regulated activation of c-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway and subsequent changes in cell cycle proteins (cyclin D1, p27kip1), accompanied by increased growth rate and cells from G0/G1 into S of cell cycle which could be blocked by U0126 in a dose-dependent manner, indicating Mirk/Dyrk1B may sequester MAPK/ERK pathway, and vice versa. Whereas, combined Mirk siRNA and U0126 induced cell apoptosis in the human cancer cells.ConclusionsThese data together show that Mirk/Dyrk1B mediates cell cycle and survival via interacting with MAPK/ERK signals and simultaneous inhibition of both pathways may be a novel therapeutic target for human cancer.
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