The intestinal gut health is one of the primary determinants of broiler growth and performance. Among the various enteric diseases, necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens, which can result in severe economic losses in poultry farming. Antibiotics like bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) and avilamycin (AVL) are commonly used antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry feed to control necrotic enteritis in birds. Bacillus subtilis PB6 was reported to prevent necrotic enteritis and improve performance in birds. This paper investigated the influence of Bacillus subtilis PB6 in improving the performance of broiler birds in comparison with BMD and avilamycin. A 35 day trial was conducted with 240 day-old commercial broiler chicks (VenCobb 400), which were divided into four treatment groups, where each treatment group was composed of 6 replicates each containing 10 birds, for a total of 60 birds per treatment. The treatment groups included a negative control (no AGP), Bacillus subtilis PB6, BMD, and avilamycin. The parameters analyzed included body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, villus histomorphometry, and European efficiency factor (EEF). Bacillus subtilis PB6 significantly (P < 0.05) improved body weight and FCR (8 points) compared to the control. The group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 or BMD had higher (P < 0.05) body weight compared to all other treatment groups. The supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 significantly improved the villus height (P < 0.05) compared to control and other AGP groups. The EEF was found to be the highest in the B. subtilis PB6 supplemented group at 35th day as compared to other treatment groups. The combined data from this study indicate that supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 improves overall performance of broilers compared to BMD and avilamycin, and can be used as potential AGP replacement in poultry farming.
Three hundred thirty‐day‐old unsexed commercial broiler chicks (Vencobb‐400) with initial average body weight of 44.04 ± 0.42 g were allocated into five experimental groups, in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 21‐day experiment. Groups were formed according to dose of supplemental L‐threonine in various rations i.e., 100% NRC specification, 100% threonine of Vencobb‐400 strain specification, 110% threonine of Vencobb‐400 strain specification, 120% of threonine of Vencobb‐400 strain specification and 130% threonine of Vencobb‐400 strain specification. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily body weight gain (ADG), cumulative feed conversion ratio (CFCR), carcass characteristics, immune response, intestinal morphometry and biochemical profile were studied. The ADFI and ADG increased linearly and quadratically as dietary threonine levels were increased. However, the CFCR did not differ (p ˃ 0.05) among the groups. Though the carcass weight and drumstick yield did not differ (p ˃ 0.05) among the groups, the relative breast yield increased linearly (p = 0.007). The relative dressing yield and relative thigh weight increased linearly (p = 0.05 and p = 0.03, respectively). The relative weight of immune organs like bursa and thymus increased linearly. The mean total serum immunoglobulin, ND‐ELISA titre and the mean lymphocyte proliferation response index increased linearly, whereas mean phagocytic activity index of neutrophil increased linearly (p < 0.001) and quadratically (p = 0.001). The mean villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), villus surface area and mean goblet cell number/villus increased linearly and quadratically, whereas the villus width (VW) and goblet cell density increased quadratically. The serum glucose increased linearly (p = 0.001), whereas serum total protein concentration and serum globulin level increased both linearly and quadratically. The albumin: globulin ratio tended to decrease linearly. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in serum cholesterol and VLDL cholesterol level. However, a linear increment (p = 0.04) in the blood serum HDL cholesterol level with a linear reduction (p = 0.01) in the blood serum LDL cholesterol was noticed.
Duck Plague (DP) or Duck viral enteritis is an acute contagious and highly fatal disease in water fowl commonly caused by Anatidalphavirus-1 belonging from Herpesviridae family and contains double stranded DNA as genetic material. Pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)s when identified by Pathogen Recognition Receptor (PRR)s acts as effective immunity system action against the pathogen. Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) and Retionic Acid Inducible Gene I (RIG1) are protein sensor commonly sense for viral double stranded RNA and helps for pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT)s have important role in immune response. The current study depicts the important role of three important immune response genes as RIGI, MDA5 and INFalpha in duck plague infestation for the first time. In silico studies followed by differential mRNA expression of RIG1, MDA5 and INFalpha was employed to detect effectiveness of gut associated immune responsiveness in liver, where kupfer cells are the major immune response cells. This was further confirmed through histological section of liver, kupfer cell and immunohistochemistry. This will be helpful to identify molecular mechanism of host innate immunity through duck plague virus infection in indigenous duck. This information may be helful for production of duck with the inherent resistance against duck plague virus infection through suitable biotechnological approaches as gene editing.Due to this inherent nature of better immunity in terms of resistance to other common avian diseases, duck will evolve as one of the major sustainable poultry species.The current study explores the scope to study host immunity against herpes virus in animal model.
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