With right-wing-extremist and -populist parties and movements on the rise throughout the world, the concept of authoritarianism has proven to be particularly valuable to explain the psychological underpinnings of these tendencies. Even though many scales to measure the different dimensions of authoritarianism exist, no short screening instrument has been tested and validated on a large scale so far. The present study examines the psychometric properties of the screening instrument Authoritarianism – Ultrashort (A-US) in three representative German samples (n = 2,524, n = 2,478, and n = 2,495). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the A-US demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Model fit was good and correlations with related constructs indicated convergent validity in both samples. Construct validity was demonstrated using the original version of the scale. The instrument proved to be invariant across sex, employment status, and education, but not across different age groups. Finally, the analyses showed that differences in the A-US are associated with sociodemographic variables. Potential causes and effects of these findings are discussed. Based on these results, the A-US proved to be a valuable and highly efficient tool to screen for authoritarian tendencies.
Ziel der Studie Die Auswirkungen innerdeutscher Migration auf somatoforme Beschwerden (GBB-8) sowie psychologischen Disstress (PHQ-4; erfasst Angst- und Depressionssymptomatik) wurden untersucht.
Methodik Eine repräsentative Stichprobe aus dem Jahr 2019 wird herangezogen und in vier Gruppen unterteilt (West, Ost, Ost-West, West-Ost). Es wurde eine Varianzanalyse durchgeführt.
Ergebnis Die Gruppe West berichtet signifikant mehr Disstress und somatoforme Beschwerden als die Gruppe Ost. Die Gruppe Ost-West berichten signifikant mehr Disstress und somatoforme Beschwerden.
Schlussfolgerung Der Einfluss der innerdeutschen Migration, insbesondere von Ost nach West, sollte in zukünftigen Untersuchungen berücksichtigt werden.
Modern theories of authoritarianism have stressed the importance of threat to the expression of authoritarian attitudes and intolerance. Arguably, authoritarian tendencies may have increased during COVID-19 pandemic, a major threat to life and security. One issue arising when comparing mean scores is that of measurement invariance. Meaningful comparisons are only possible, if latent constructs are similar between groups and/or across time. This prerequisite is rarely ever tested in research on authoritarianism. In this study, we aim to analyze the short scale for authoritarianism KSA-3 by investigating its measurement invariance on two levels (three first-order and one second-order factors) and latent mean changes using two German representative samples (N = 4,905). Specifically, we look at differences before and during the pandemic (2017 vs. 2020). While measurement invariance holds across both levels in all conditions, we find a decrease in latent means in 2020, contrary to expectations and established theories. Moreover, latent means differ with regard to gender, education, and east–west Germany. We conclude that analyses of latent means and measurement invariance instead of mean comparisons with composites should become the standard. Future studies should focus on threat as a moderator between authoritarianism and intolerance, and on possible interactions with context variables.
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