Combining the electronic properties of graphene and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) in hybrid heterostructures offers the possibility to create devices with various functionalities. Electronic logic and memory devices have already been constructed from graphene-MoS2 hybrids, but they do not make use of the photosensitivity of MoS2, which arises from its optical-range bandgap. Here, we demonstrate that graphene-on-MoS2 binary heterostructures display remarkable dual optoelectronic functionality, including highly sensitive photodetection and gate-tunable persistent photoconductivity. The responsivity of the hybrids was found to be nearly 1 × 10(10) A W(-1) at 130 K and 5 × 10(8) A W(-1) at room temperature, making them the most sensitive graphene-based photodetectors. When subjected to time-dependent photoillumination, the hybrids could also function as a rewritable optoelectronic switch or memory, where the persistent state shows almost no relaxation or decay within experimental timescales, indicating near-perfect charge retention. These effects can be quantitatively explained by gate-tunable charge exchange between the graphene and MoS2 layers, and may lead to new graphene-based optoelectronic devices that are naturally scalable for large-area applications at room temperature.
We present low-temperature electrical transport experiments in five field-effect transistor devices consisting of monolayer, bilayer, and trilayer MoS(2) films, mechanically exfoliated onto Si/SiO(2) substrate. Our experiments reveal that the electronic states in all films are localized well up to room temperature over the experimentally accessible range of gate voltage. This manifests in two-dimensional (2D) variable range hopping (VRH) at high temperatures, while below ∼30 K, the conductivity displays oscillatory structures in gate voltage arising from resonant tunneling at the localized sites. From the correlation energy (T(0)) of VRH and gate voltage dependence of conductivity, we suggest that Coulomb potential from trapped charges in the substrate is the dominant source of disorder in MoS(2) field-effect devices, which leads to carrier localization, as well.
Through unbiased metabolomics, we identified elevations of the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). 2HG can inhibit 2-oxoglutaratre (2-OG) dependent dioxygenases which mediate epigenetic events including DNA and histone demethylation. 2HG accumulation, specifically the D- enantiomer, can result from gain of function mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1, IDH2) found in several different tumors. In contrast, kidney tumors demonstrate elevations of the L enantiomer of 2HG (L-2HG). High 2HG tumors demonstrate reduced DNA levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) consistent with 2-HG mediated inhibition of TET (Ten Eleven Translocation) enzymes which convert 5-methylcystoine (5mC) to 5hmC. L-2HG elevation is mediated in part by reduced expression of L-2HG dehydrogenase (L2HGDH). L2HGDH reconstitution in RCC cells lowers L-2HG and promotes 5hmC accumulation. Additionally, L2HGDH expression in RCC cells reduces histone methylation and suppresses in vitro tumor phenotypes. Our report identifies L-2HG as an epigenetic modifier and putative oncometabolite in kidney cancer.
A distinctive feature of single-layer graphene is the linearly dispersive energy bands, which in the case of multilayer graphene become parabolic. A simple electrical transport-based probe to differentiate between these two band structures will be immensely valuable, particularly when quantum Hall measurements are difficult, such as in chemically synthesized graphene nanoribbons. Here we show that the flicker noise, or the 1/f noise, in electrical resistance is a sensitive and robust probe to the band structure of graphene. At low temperatures, the dependence of noise magnitude on the carrier density was found to be opposite for the linear and parabolic bands. We explain our data with a comprehensive theoretical model that clarifies several puzzling issues concerning the microscopic origin of flicker noise in graphene field-effect transistors (GraFET).
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson Disease, Alzheimer Disease and Huntington Disease. PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and BIM (BCL2 interacting mediator of cell death), pro-apoptotic BH3 domain-only, BCL2 family members, have previously been shown to regulate ER stress-induced cell death, but the upstream signaling pathways that regulate this response in neuronal cells are incompletely defined. Consistent with previous studies, we show that both PUMA and BIM are induced in response to ER stress in neuronal cells and that transcriptional induction of PUMA regulates ER stress-induced cell death, independent of p53. CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein also known as GADD153; gene name Ddit3), a critical initiator of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was found to regulate both PUMA and BIM expression in response to ER stress. We further show that CHOP knockdown prevents perturbations in the AKT (protein kinase B)/FOXO3a (forkhead box, class O, 3a) pathway in response to ER stress. CHOP co-immunoprecipitated with FOXO3a in tunicamycin treated cells, suggesting that CHOP may also regulate other pro-apoptotic signaling cascades culminating in PUMA and BIM activation and cell death. In summary, CHOP regulates the expression of multiple pro-apoptotic BH3-only molecules through multiple mechanisms, making CHOP an important therapeutic target relevant to a number of neurodegenerative conditions.
We demonstrate that the low-frequency resistance fluctuations, or noise, in bilayer graphene are strongly connected to its band structure and display a minimum when the gap between the conduction and valence band is zero. Using double-gated bilayer graphene devices we have tuned the zero gap and charge neutrality points independently, which offers a versatile mechanism to investigate the low-energy band structure, charge localization, and screening properties of bilayer graphene.
We present low-frequency electrical resistance fluctuations, or noise, in graphene-based field-effect devices with varying number of layers. In single-layer devices, the noise magnitude decreases with increasing carrier density, which behaved oppositely in the devices with two or larger number of layers accompanied by a suppression in noise magnitude by more than two orders in the latter case. This behavior can be explained from the influence of external electric field on graphene band structure, and provides a simple transport-based route to isolate single-layer graphene devices from those with multiple layers.
As one of the most important members of the two dimensional chalcogenide family, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) has played a fundamental role in the advancement of low dimensional electronic, optoelectronic and piezoelectric designs. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to solid state synaptic transistors using two dimensional MoS2 floating gate memories. By using an extended floating gate architecture which allows the device to be operated at near-ideal subthreshold swing of 77 mV/decade over four decades of drain current, we have realised a charge tunneling based synaptic memory with performance comparable to the state of the art in neuromorphic designs. The device successfully demonstrates various features of a biological synapse, including pulsed potentiation and relaxation of channel conductance, as well as spike time dependent plasticity (STDP). Our device returns excellent energy efficiency figures and provides a robust platform based on ultrathin two dimensional nanosheets for future neuromorphic applications.Understanding the complexities in the functioning of the human brain has been one of the foremost challenges in the field of neuroscience. Among the several proposed models, only a few can explain the operation of a human brain and that too for a very limited set of functionalities  . From an electronic point of view, the computational architecture of a brain is vastly different from that of a traditional von Neumann architecture based system [4,5] . This has led to the emergence of neuromorphic computation schemes  . Current computation follows an architecture where processing and storage of data is handled by separate entities whereas in neuromorphic computation, processing and storage of data is handled by a single element which acts as the electrical analogue of a synapse. Mimicing the functionality and density of synapses in the brain would lead to a massive reduction in energy consumption and immensely enhance computational capabilities like parallel processing. Given the high density of synapses required, traditional silicon based devices which are plagued by power dissipation and short channel effects are rendered unsuitable for scalable neuromorphic applications [11,12] . This makes ultrathin two dimensional materials a perfect candidate for the active element of a synaptic transistor given their immunity to short channel effects and excellent gate coupling at nanometer length scales [12,13] .Biologically, a synapse functions by changing its conductivity based on the sequence of synaptic pulses it receives. This is accomplished by varying the concentration of neurotransmitters or chemical stimulants which control the conductivity of the junction between two neurons  . An ideal synaptic transistor must possess the ‡ e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com twin qualities of being a non-volatile memory while inculcating a learning based mechanism to deduce its conductance from the history of applied inputs [28...
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