These preliminary findings suggest that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus may reduce the symptoms of severe forms of OCD but is associated with a substantial risk of serious adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00169377.)
Two parkinsonian patients who experienced transient hypomanic states when the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was stimulated during postoperative adjustment of the electrical parameters for antiparkinsonian therapy agreed to have the mood disorder reproduced, in conjunction with motor, cognitive, and behavioral evaluations and concomitant functional neuroimaging. During the experiment, STN stimulation again induced a hypomanic state concomitant with activation of cortical and thalamic regions known to process limbic and associative information. This observation suggests that the STN plays a role in the control of a complex behavior that includes emotional as well as cognitive and motor components. The localization of the four contacts of the quadripolar electrode was determined precisely with an interactive brain atlas. The results showed that (i) the hypomanic state was caused only by stimulation through one contact localized in the anteromedial STN; (ii) both this contact and the contact immediately dorsal to it improved the parkinsonian motor state; (iii) the most dorsal and ventral contacts, located at the boundaries of the STN, neither induced the behavioral disorder nor improved motor performance. Detailed analysis of these data led us to consider a model in which the three functional modalities, emotional, cognitive, and motor, are not processed in a segregated manner but can be subtly combined in the small volume of the STN. This nucleus would thus serve as a nexus that integrates the motor, cognitive, and emotional components of behavior and might consequently be an effective target for the treatment of behavioral disorders that combine emotional, cognitive, and motor impairment.basal ganglia ͉ emotion ͉ deep brain stimulation ͉ neuroimaging
This paper provides a critical review of the prevalence of social phobia in European countries, a description of associated disability and burden and of clinical correlates and risk factors associated with social phobia. On the basis of a comprehensive literature search we identified 21 community studies and two primary care studies. The median lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of social phobia in community samples referring to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria were 6.65% and 2.0%, respectively. Younger individuals showed the highest rates, and women were more frequently affected than men. Social phobia was shown to be a persistent condition with a remarkably high degree of comorbid conditions, associated impairment and disability. Research deficits lie in a lack of data for most EU countries and in a lack of studies in children and the elderly. No data are available addressing met and unmet needs for intervention and costs, and data for vulnerability and risk factors of malignant course are scarce.
The results lend support to the efficacy of CACR with particular emphasis on Social Cognition. The difficulty in targeting specific domains suggests a 'non-specific' effect of CACR. These results are discussed in the light of the possible bias in remediation tasks due to computer interface design paradigms.
Pathological gambling (PG) related to dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is part of a spectrum of behavioral disorders called the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS). We describe a series of PD patients with preoperative active PG due to dopaminergic treatment from a total of 598 patients who have undergone surgery for subthalamic nucleus stimulation for disabling motor fluctuations. The patients had systematic open assessment of behavioral symptoms and standardized assessments of motor symptoms, mood, and apathy. Seven patients (6 men, 1 woman; age, 54 +/- 9 years; levodopa equivalent dose, 1,390 +/- 350 mg/day) had preoperative PG over a mean of 7 years, intolerant to reduction in medication. Six had nonmotor fluctuations and four had other behavioral symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of the DDS. After surgery, motor symptoms improved, allowing for 74% reduction of dopaminergic treatment, below the dosage of gambling onset. In all patients, PG resolved postoperatively after 18 months on average (range, 0-48), although transient worsening occurred in two. Improvement paralleled the time course and degree of reduction in dopaminergic treatment. Nonmotor fluctuations, off period dysphoria, and other symptoms of the DDS improved. Two patients developed persistent apathy. In conclusion, PG and other symptoms of the DDS-associated dopaminergic treatment improved in our patients following surgery. Dopaminergic dysregulation commonly attributed to pulsatile overstimulation of the limbic dopaminergic system may be subject to desensitization on chronic subthalamic stimulation, which has a relative motor selectivity and allows for decrease in dopaminergic treatment.
Background: Bilateral subthalamic high-frequency stimulation significantly improves motor functions in patients with advanced forms of Parkinson disease (PD). This favorable effect contrasts with a growing number of reports that the treatment may result in psychiatric complications.Objective: To analyze the presence of behavioral disorders and social maladjustment in PD patients successfully treated with continuous bilateral subthalamic stimulation.
BackgroundRepetitive behaviours (RB) in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) are frequent. However, a controversy persists whether they are manifestations of obssessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or correspond to complex tics.Methods166 consecutive patients with GTS aged 15–68 years were recruited and submitted to extensive neurological, psychiatric and psychological evaluations. RB were evaluated by the YBOCS symptom checklist and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I), and classified on the basis of a semi-directive psychiatric interview as compulsions or tics.ResultsRB were present in 64.4% of patients with GTS (107/166) and categorised into 3 major groups: a ‘tic-like’ group (24.3%–40/166) characterised by RB such as touching, counting, ‘just right’ and symmetry searching; an ‘OCD-like’ group (20.5%–34/166) with washing and checking rituals; and a ‘mixed’ group (13.2%–22/166) with both ‘tics-like’ and ‘OCD-like’ types of RB present in the same patient. In 6.3% of patients, RB could not be classified into any of these groups and were thus considered ‘undetermined’.ConclusionsThe results confirm the phenomenological heterogeneity of RB in GTS patients and allows to distinguish two types: tic-like behaviours which are very likely an integral part of GTS; and OCD-like behaviours, which can be considered as a comorbid condition of GTS and were correlated with higher score of complex tics, neuroleptic and SSRIs treatment frequency and less successful socio-professional adaptation. We suggest that a meticulous semiological analysis of RB in GTS patients will help to tailor treatment and allow to better classify patients for future pathophysiologic studies.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT00169351
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