These preliminary findings suggest that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus may reduce the symptoms of severe forms of OCD but is associated with a substantial risk of serious adverse events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00169377.)
After STN stimulation, patients experienced difficulties in their relations with themselves, their spouses, their families, and their socio-professional environment. The authors suggest a multidisciplinary psychosocial preparation and follow-up to help patients and their entourage cope with the sudden changes in their existence following successful neurosurgery.
Objective: to analyse 24 parkinsonian patients successfully treated by bilateral STN stimulation for the presence of behavioural disorders. Method: patients were evaluated retrospectively for adjustment disorders (social adjustment scale, SAS), psychiatric disorders (comparison of the results of psychiatric interview and the mini international neuropsychiatric inventory) and personality changes (IOWA scale of personality changes). Results: parkinsonian motor disability was improved by 69.5% and the levodopa equivalent daily dosage was reduced by 60.5%. Social adjustment (SAS) was considered good or excellent in nine patients, moderately (n=14), or severely (n=1) impaired in 15 patients. Psychiatric disorders consisted of amplification or decompensation of previously existing disorders that had sometimes passed unnoticed, such as depressive episodes (n=4), generalised anxiety (n=18), and behavioural disorders with drug dependence (n=2). Appearance of mild to moderate emotional hyperreactivity was reported in 15 patients. Personality traits (IOWA scale) were improved in eight patients, unchanged in seven, and aggravated in eight Conclusion: Improvement in parkinsonian motor disability induced by STN stimulation is not necessarily accompanied by improvement in psychic function and quality of life. Attention is drawn to the possible appearance of personality disorders and decompensation of previous psychiatric disorders in parkinsonian patients who are suitable candidates for neurosurgery. We suggest that a careful psychological and psychiatric interview be performed before surgery, and emphasise the need for psychological follow up to ensure the best possible outcome. Bilateral continuous high frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was recently introduced to treat advanced forms of Parkinson's disease. 1 The method currently used improves motor disability by 33%-67%, motor fluctuations by 73%-83%, and levodopa induced dyskinesias by 55%-88%, and permits a 40%-80% reduction in the doses of antiparkinsonian medication, compared with the preoperative state. 2-6Several factors contribute to the efficacy of the treatment: the stringency of the inclusion criteria, the accuracy of electrode implantation in the STN, and long term optimisation of the stimulation parameters. 5 The surgical intervention has little or no effect on cognitive function. Two recent studies showed that chronic bilateral subthalamic stimulation affects neither memory nor executive functions. 7 8 A third study, however, showed that frontal lobe-like symptomatology can be aggravated in patients 70 years of age or older. 9 The question of behavioural effects of the treatment has not yet been addressed directly, except in a few isolated case reports. 9 We report the results of a retrospective study designed to explore the range of behavioural disorders in 24 patients successfully treated by bilateral STN stimulation.
Two parkinsonian patients who experienced transient hypomanic states when the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was stimulated during postoperative adjustment of the electrical parameters for antiparkinsonian therapy agreed to have the mood disorder reproduced, in conjunction with motor, cognitive, and behavioral evaluations and concomitant functional neuroimaging. During the experiment, STN stimulation again induced a hypomanic state concomitant with activation of cortical and thalamic regions known to process limbic and associative information. This observation suggests that the STN plays a role in the control of a complex behavior that includes emotional as well as cognitive and motor components. The localization of the four contacts of the quadripolar electrode was determined precisely with an interactive brain atlas. The results showed that (i) the hypomanic state was caused only by stimulation through one contact localized in the anteromedial STN; (ii) both this contact and the contact immediately dorsal to it improved the parkinsonian motor state; (iii) the most dorsal and ventral contacts, located at the boundaries of the STN, neither induced the behavioral disorder nor improved motor performance. Detailed analysis of these data led us to consider a model in which the three functional modalities, emotional, cognitive, and motor, are not processed in a segregated manner but can be subtly combined in the small volume of the STN. This nucleus would thus serve as a nexus that integrates the motor, cognitive, and emotional components of behavior and might consequently be an effective target for the treatment of behavioral disorders that combine emotional, cognitive, and motor impairment.basal ganglia ͉ emotion ͉ deep brain stimulation ͉ neuroimaging
BackgroundDeep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an alternative to ablative neurosurgery for severe treatment-resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), although with partially discrepant results probably related to differences in anatomical targetting and stimulation conditions. We sought to determine the efficacy and tolerability of DBS in OCD and the existence of clinical predictors of response using meta-analysis.MethodsWe searched the literature on DBS for OCD from 1999 through January 2014 using PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We performed fixed and random-effect meta-analysis with score changes (pre-post DBS) on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) as the primary-outcome measure, and the number of responders to treatment, quality of life and acceptability as secondary measures.FindingsThirty-one studies involving 116 subjects were identified. Eighty-three subjects were implanted in striatal areas—anterior limb of the internal capsule, ventral capsule and ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens and ventral caudate—27 in the subthalamic nucleus and six in the inferior thalamic peduncle. Global percentage of Y-BOCS reduction was estimated at 45.1% and global percentage of responders at 60.0%. Better response was associated with older age at OCD onset and presence of sexual/religious obsessions and compulsions. No significant differences were detected in efficacy between targets. Five patients dropped out, but adverse effects were generally reported as mild, transient and reversible.ConclusionsOur analysis confirms that DBS constitutes a valid alternative to lesional surgery for severe, therapy-refractory OCD patients. Well-controlled, randomized studies with larger samples are needed to establish the optimal targeting and stimulation conditions and to extend the analysis of clinical predictors of outcome.
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