This paper briefly reviews how to derive and interpret coefficients of spatial regression models, including topics of direct and indirect (spatial spillover) effects. These topics have been addressed in the spatial econometric literature over the past 5-6 years, but often at a level sometimes difficult for students new to the field. Our goal is to overcome this handicap by carefully presenting the mathematics behind these spatial effects and clearly illustrating how they work using two small fictive datasets and one large dataset with real data. The motivation for the paper is primarily pedagogical. Theoretical and conceptual impediments associated with the application of procedures are discussed.
There has been a remarkable decline in the number of Catholics in Brazil over the last few decades, a fact that is attributed to the growth of Pentecostal churches and to an increase in the number of people with no religious affiliation. We analyzed the age, period, and cohort effects associated with religious affiliation in Brazil from 1980 to 2010, applying the Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort and Cross-Classified Random Effects Model. We observed that age effects were significant but low for Catholics and Pentecostals, and were substantial for those with no religious affiliation, with a negative relationship. For these first two religious affiliations, period effects were of greater magnitude with clear trends: negative for Catholics and positive for Pentecostals. Cohort effects were significant for all three affiliations, but magnitudes were lower than the other two effects. We also verified that the likelihood of being a Pentecostal decreased with formal education, and the opposite occurred for persons with no religious affiliation. These effects, however, were smaller for younger cohorts, possibly due to the reduced social selectivity of recent students pursuing higher education and the increase in overall levels of education.
IntroduçãoO desenvolvimento regional pode ser analisado a partir de diversas abordagens e perspectivas (NEARY, 2001;SCOTT, 2004), entre as quais inclui-se aquela que ressalta que os sistemas produtivos no capitalismo contemporâneo focam-se, cada vez mais, no processamento de informações e símbo-los e em aspectos gerenciais para serviços culturais. Portanto, segundo essa perspectiva, estudos regionais deveriam incorporar aspectos econômicos e culturais conjuntamente. Assim, análises que tratam da performance produtiva espacial ou da produtividade e crescimento regionais deveriam ser abordadas a partir do estudo da relação entre esses dois aspectos, com a cooperação e síntese de estudos da geografia econômica e da geografia cultural (SCOTT, 2004).Seguindo essa perspectiva, um importante fator em estudos sobre desenvolvimento e diversidade regionais seria a distribuição espacial de capital humano e de indivíduos criativos 1 (FLORIDA, 2002a). Como destacado no livro de Jacobs (2001), as cidades são decisivas na atração, aglomeração e mobilização de pessoas criativas. O ponto-chave para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de cidades e de regiões seria o aumento na produtividade associado com a aglomeração de capital humano ou de pessoas qualificadas e criativas. Desta
This study uses the capability approach to undertake a multidimensional analysis of deprivation in urban areas of Brazil between 2003 and 2008 based on a four-dimensional index (living conditions, health, level of education and participation in the labour market) constructed out of 13 different indicators. Its findings indicate that a majority of the population is living in households that are not experiencing deprivation and that, of those that are, the instance of deprivation is confined to a single indicator. When the results were then compared with the income-poverty index for the different states in Brazil, the outcome confirmed that regional inequalities show up in both types of measurements. Finally, synthetic cohort data and ordinary least squares (ols) models were used to study the relationship between personal attributes and a propensity to lapse into poverty and/or to remain poor. KEYWORDSUrban areas, living conditions, poverty, economic indicators, comparative analysis, regional inequalities, Brazil analysed Brazilian households' perceived deprivation and found that deprivation profiles differed markedly between urban and rural areas. He also found very little correlation between deprivation and income for most of the dimensions covered in his study (Golgher, 2010b).While this study will also look at poverty in Brazil from a multidimensional perspective using the capability approach, its objectives and the methodology it uses are different. It is based on a multidimensional deprivation index (mdi) inspired by the methodology proposed by Alkire and Foster (2007) and applied in 104 developing countries, including Brazil, by Alkire and Santos (2010). The mdi has four dimensions (housing conditions, health, education and the labour market) that are captured by 13 non-monetary indicators (see table 2). The measurements using this index indicate that a majority of the population lives in households that are not experiencing deprivation and that, of those that are, the instance of deprivation is confined to a single indicator. Households shown to be lacking in respect of numerous indicators represent only a small proportion of the total.Income poverty levels will be compared with the mdi measurements taken in 2003 and 2008. Regional data mapping points to a considerable degree of spatial heterogeneity across the states of Brazil. The existence of markedly different geographic profiles shows that, as noted by Baulch and Masset (2003), monetary and non-monetary poverty indicators in developing countries do not tell the same story. These initial results provide a broader picture of poverty in Brazil from both a monetary and a multidimensional perspective.The common features and relationships among the 13 mdi indicators were taken into account. The indicator for sanitation services or sewerage systems was the most significant one for Brazil from both a one-dimensional and multidimensional standpoint. Some aspects of deprivation can show up in two or more indicators, as in the case of water and sewerage ...
ResumoCódigos JEL J31; J70. AbstractLabor market literature attests that men tend to earn more than women in similar occupations in Brazil and elsewhere. However, some recent trends that have occurred in Brazil promote the narrowing of gender gaps in the labor market. This paper analyzes this issue empirically with the use of PNADs, Mincerian wage equations, and a hierarchical model based on the Age-PeriodCohort approach. We observed that gender wage gaps were shrinking and, although there might still be an unexplained advantage for men in the labor market, the evolution of women's endowments for the labor market and the decrease in labor market segregation significantly compensated for this difference. Due to these trends, after controlling for cohort differences, we observed non-significant gender wage gaps in some models. Shrinking gender wage gaps in the Brazilian labor market: an application of the APC approach Diminuição do hiato salarial entre gêneros no mercado de trabalho brasileiro: uma aplicação da abordagem IPC
The objective of this article is to assess whether academic performance at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG) varies depending on whether students received socioracial bonuses on the institution's entrance exam. The study analyzes the impact of different categories of this social inclusion policy. The database contains socioeconomic and academic performance information for students in their 1 The results suggest that RSG results for students who received and did not receive the bonus are similar, controlling for social, demographic and economic variables. This study suggests that UFMG's socioracial bonus policy had the desired effect of including less-favored groups at the university without diminishing educational quality.
ResumoO consumo de cultura é uma atividade intensiva em tempo, de modo que as escolhas ligadas a esta ação são restritas tanto pela renda quanto pelo tempo disponível para o consumo. Este artigo combina duas bases de dados secundários, a Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares e a Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios, para discutir a alocação de tempo e o consumo de bens e serviços culturais no Brasil. Os resultados sugerem que a disponibilidade de tempo é positivamente correlacionada ao consumo cultural. No entanto, nível de escolaridade e participação no mercado de trabalho são determinantes decisivos do gasto em cultura. Dados esses resultados, os baixos níveis de consumo de cultura no Brasil são possivelmente mais relacionados à ausência de hábito que à ausência de tempo ou de recursos monetários.Palavras-chave economia da cultura; consumo cultural; alocação de tempo.Códigos JEL Z10; Z11. AbstractConsumption of culture is a time intensive activity; therefore, individuals might face not only income constraints, but also time limitations to consume culture. In order to shed light on this topic, the paper combined two different databases to discuss time allocation and the consumption of cultural activities in Brazil. The results suggest that time availability is positively associated with cultural consumption. However, schooling levels and labor market participation are decisive determinants of cultural expenditure. Given these results, the low levels of culture consumption in Brazil are possibly more related to the lack of habit than specifi cally with the lack of time or monetary resources.
Há algumas décadas tem se destacado a importância dos investimentos IntroduçãoHá algumas décadas as teorias de desenvolvimento econômico têm destacado a importância dos investimentos em educação para que os países subdesenvolvidos e em vias de desenvolvimento reduzam o gap existente entre eles e os países desenvolvidos. Investir em capital humano, resultando numa mão de obra mais qualificada, é um determinante-chave para o crescimento econômico e a elevação da renda. Além disso, as melhorias no nível de vida de uma população estão estreitamente relacionadas ao aumento da renda via educação (LEE; BARRO, 1997).O Estado tem papel fundamental nesse quesito, pois determina a estrutura e a qualidade da educação, arquiteta o modelo educacional a ser adotado e tem responsabilidade direta sobre as provisões de educação (BUCHMANN; HANNUM, 2001). Assim, entre os principais objetivos do Estado no âmbito da educação, está a inclusão da maior proporção possível da população
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