2012
DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0426.2012.01980.x
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Vertebral deformities in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) - etiology and pathology

Abstract: Summary The present review sums up and discusses the current literature on occurrence, causation and pathology of vertebral deformities in farmed Atlantic salmon, and also gives a brief introduction into the normal ontogeny and anatomy of the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon. Skeletal development and growth are sensitive processes that can be affected by many factors. Many of these factors can be manipulated under farming conditions, and are thus regarded as risk factors. Several risk factors that relate to… Show more

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Cited by 90 publications
(108 citation statements)
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References 100 publications
(228 reference statements)
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“…In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) it has been demonstrated that suboptimal nutrition can cause a softer skeleton during development which can ultimately lead to pronounced skeletal abnormalities, such as compressed vertebrae and craniofacial abnormalities (Fjelldal et al, 2012). Vertebral compressions like those reported here in cod larvae might be a result of heterochronic bone growth/remodelling as a reaction to high workload (Fjelldal et al, 2012).…”
Section: Effects Of Diet On Bone Developmentmentioning
confidence: 71%
“…In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) it has been demonstrated that suboptimal nutrition can cause a softer skeleton during development which can ultimately lead to pronounced skeletal abnormalities, such as compressed vertebrae and craniofacial abnormalities (Fjelldal et al, 2012). Vertebral compressions like those reported here in cod larvae might be a result of heterochronic bone growth/remodelling as a reaction to high workload (Fjelldal et al, 2012).…”
Section: Effects Of Diet On Bone Developmentmentioning
confidence: 71%
“…In the present study, the severity of the fibrosis was correlated to the radio graphic severity of the LKS, suggesting that a greater degree of fibrosis results in more contraction, and therefore higher severity of LKS. While defects in vertebral bone development are hypothesized to cause most spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon (Fjelldal et al 2012b, Boglione et al 2013b, the possibility that perivertebral inflammation and fibrosis could cause spinal curvature in Atlantic salmon has been previously suggested (Kvellestad et al 2000). Additionally, the possibility that LKS in Atlantic salmon has a neuromuscular rather than a bone aetio logy has also previously been hypothesized (Witten et al 2009).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Other potential factors that have been associated with spinal curvature in Atlantic salmon include environmental factors such as water temperature and currents, growth rates and the age at smoltification (Silverstone & Hammell 2002, Fjelldal et al 2012b, Boglione et al 2013b, Berillis 2015. While studies have not revealed an influence of growth rate or age at smoltification on the development of LKS in Chinook salmon (J. E. Symonds unpubl.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Body deformities and chemical body composition. Elevated temperatures and photoperiod manipulation to speed up growth are considered the major environmental factors that cause skeletal deformities in fish, while among the nutritional factors phosphorus nutrition appears the most important (Fjelldal et al 2012). Fish diet and water temperature both significantly influenced the incidence of body deformities in juvenile tench (Table 6).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%