2012
DOI: 10.1080/09670874.2012.655702
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Using sex pheromone traps in the decision-making process for pesticide application against fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda[Smith] [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae]) larvae in maize

Abstract: The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of maize and frequently demands control measures. The timing of insecticide application is a key factor in determining its efficiency, so an experiment was designed to investigate this. Application of insecticide was based on three criteria: (i) the number of trap-caught moths in a Delta-type trap with a commercial sex pheromone lure placed in the center of the target area, soon after plant emergence; (ii) the percentage… Show more

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Cited by 69 publications
(55 citation statements)
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“…The action limit, based on the capture of moths in traps, was calculated from data on the biology and ecology of S. frugiperda, considering periods of life including incubation, larval development, and ability to cause economic damage. The action limit set at three moths caught in pheromone traps corresponds to a level of infestation of 10 % of damaged plants (Cruz et al 2012). Obviously, when the target to be reached is the egg stage by the use of T. pretiosum, the release must be immediate as in the study.…”
Section: Yieldmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…The action limit, based on the capture of moths in traps, was calculated from data on the biology and ecology of S. frugiperda, considering periods of life including incubation, larval development, and ability to cause economic damage. The action limit set at three moths caught in pheromone traps corresponds to a level of infestation of 10 % of damaged plants (Cruz et al 2012). Obviously, when the target to be reached is the egg stage by the use of T. pretiosum, the release must be immediate as in the study.…”
Section: Yieldmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The timing of the first parasitoid release was based on reaching an action limit of three or more moths (cumulatively) per pheromone trap (Cruz et al 2012). The second and third releases of T. pretiosum were performed at a minimum of seven-day intervals, based on continued male adult captures in the trap (i.e., ≥3 males cumulative per trap) after each parasitoid release.…”
Section: Monitoring Of S Frugiperda Adults and T Pretiosum Releasementioning
confidence: 99%
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“…A number of factors may influence the development of a predictive strategy with pheromones, including geographic variation [26], the impact of natural enemies on the pest population [27], the climatic conditions and the quality of the pest host plant [28].…”
Section: Population Fluctuation and Adult-immature Relationships In Smentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In order to determine the initial occurrence and frequency of moths during each experiment, a delta trap (Ferocon 1C  ) containing the synthetic sex pheromone of S. frugiperda (BIO SPODOPTERA  -Chem Tica Internacional, S.A.) sachet was installed in the centre of each experimental area soon after the emergence of maize plants (Cruz et al, 2010(Cruz et al, , 2012.…”
Section: Experiments II (Organic Single Crop Maize X Organic Maize Intmentioning
confidence: 99%