2021
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18147382
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Ultra-Processed Food Availability and Noncommunicable Diseases: A Systematic Review

Abstract: Ultra-processed food (UPF) can be harmful to the population’s health. To establish associations between UPF and health outcomes, food consumption can be assessed using availability data, such as purchase lists or household budget surveys. The aim of this systematic review was to search studies that related UPF availability with noncommunicable diseases or their risk factors. PRISMA guidelines were used. Searches were performed in PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus and Web of Science in February 2021. The search strategy in… Show more

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Cited by 18 publications
(8 citation statements)
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“…The present systematic review found a positive association between the consumption of UPFs and BP/AH, pointing out the health risk of the consumption of highly PFs, which have a high energy density and are rich in salt, sugar and fat. Previous reviews have also evaluated the effect of these foods on different health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, overweight, obesity, depression and metabolic syndrome [ 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ]. Such findings offer evidence that the consumption of these foods has negative consequences for human health.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The present systematic review found a positive association between the consumption of UPFs and BP/AH, pointing out the health risk of the consumption of highly PFs, which have a high energy density and are rich in salt, sugar and fat. Previous reviews have also evaluated the effect of these foods on different health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, overweight, obesity, depression and metabolic syndrome [ 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ]. Such findings offer evidence that the consumption of these foods has negative consequences for human health.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…This trend has also been shown in other countries, such as Belgium [ 28 ], Sweden [ 61 ], the United Kingdom [ 20 ], and the United States [ 62 ]. This increase also parallels the growing burden in Spain and worldwide of non-communicable diseases [ 48 , 49 ], of which excessive consumption of ultra-processed foods is known to be one of the main causes [ 8 , 63 ]. The exact reasons for this increase in UPF consumption are not known, but may include the increased availability and accessibility of such products, as they are highly palatable and inexpensive, increased consumption of prepared foods outside the home over the past few decades, and aggressive and unregulated advertising of convenience foods, which may promote overconsumption [ 46 , 64 ].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…An increase in the risk of obesity by 31% was reported, with an average UPF consumption contributing to 73% of TEI [31]. A recent systematic review reported that high UPF consumption correlates linearly with elevated body mass index (BMI) [8]. Several studies had reported similar significant results [17,18,27]; elevated BMI levels were observed among individuals consuming a high level of UPF.…”
Section: Ultra-processed Foods and Health Outcomesmentioning
confidence: 96%
“…A privilege of this industry is providing hyper-palatable products that are easy to advertise and can last on store shelves or kitchen cabinets as long as possible with the least amount of expense, therefore gaining maximum profits [3]. The rise in the consumption of UPFs, including "fast foods", "soft and sugary drinks", "processed meats", and other types of "ready-to-consume" foods, has been linked to the risk of obesity and many other NCDs such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and depression [8]. UPFs are characteristically poor in nutritional compounds and high in non-nutritive components [3,5,9].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%