microRNAs (miRNAs) play a significant role in ovarian follicular maturity, but miRNA expression patterns in ovarian stroma (OS), large follicles (LF), and small follicles (SF) have been rarely explored. We herein aimed to identify miRNAs, their target genes and signaling pathways, as well as their interaction networks in OS, LF, and SF of Chuanzhong black goats at the estrus phase using small RNA-sequencing. We found that the miRNA expression profiles of LF and SF were more similar than those of OS—32, 16, and 29 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in OS vs. LF, OS vs. SF, and LF vs. SF, respectively. Analyses of functional enrichment and the miRNA-targeted gene interaction network suggested that miR-182 (SMC3), miR-122 (SGO1), and miR-206 (AURKA) were involved in ovarian organogenesis and hormone secretion by oocyte meiosis. Furthermore, miR-202-5p (EREG) and miR-485-3p (FLT3) were involved in follicular maturation through the MAPK signaling pathway, and miR-2404 (BMP7 and CDKN1C) played a key role in follicular development through the TGF-β signaling pathway and cell cycle; nevertheless, further research is warranted. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate miRNA expression patterns in OS, LF, and SF of Chuanzhong black goats during estrus. Our findings provide a theoretical basis to elucidate the role of miRNAs in follicular maturation. These key miRNAs might provide candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis of follicular maturation and will assist in developing new therapeutic targets for female goat infertility.