2006
DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299713.001.0001
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The Business of Women

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Cited by 64 publications
(11 citation statements)
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“…Furthermore, Helena's son-in-law, Charles Howard, is only mentioned clearing a debt after Helena's death; 43 strengthening Barker's argument that the passage of the firm from mother to son or relative was not automatic. 44 In accordance with recent literature about early modern widowhood and commerce, Helena as a widow was proactive and did not limit herself to the exchanges already established by her husband. Initially, being in London, she continued to be involved in the trade of English fabrics and Spanish and French provisions that found their way from Cadiz to the New World.…”
Section: IIsupporting
confidence: 57%
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“…Furthermore, Helena's son-in-law, Charles Howard, is only mentioned clearing a debt after Helena's death; 43 strengthening Barker's argument that the passage of the firm from mother to son or relative was not automatic. 44 In accordance with recent literature about early modern widowhood and commerce, Helena as a widow was proactive and did not limit herself to the exchanges already established by her husband. Initially, being in London, she continued to be involved in the trade of English fabrics and Spanish and French provisions that found their way from Cadiz to the New World.…”
Section: IIsupporting
confidence: 57%
“…38 Mrs Aylward typifies the role of a widow becoming legally responsible for her own actions. 39 Indeed, immediately after the bereavement of her husband, Helena found herself dealing with all financial matters, not least the funeral charges; there was the need to supervise all the account books, and to deal with creditors and debtors. The first debtor in the list was her brother Nicholas, who owed her the third part of a sum they had disbursed in 1697 after the death of their father Matthew for the funeral expenses and some charities.…”
Section: IImentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…At one level, they sought to attract trade by creating a 'positive impression on the minds of the consuming public'. 16 Such an impression was highly dependent upon interaction which took place in the shop, and it could be carried into the home of the privileged consumer through the use of trade cards and head bills. But it was projected out into a very public arena through newspaper advertisements which drew on the norms and language of civility and politeness.…”
Section: Cultural and Social Historymentioning
confidence: 99%