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“…Gibberellin biosynthesis and signalling might be an example of such clade specific adaptations. We observed that a considerable proportion of annotated DE genes in M. paleacea mentioned GA biosynthesis, in conflict with the notion that GA active compounds are not known to be produced in bryophytes (64,(68)(69)(70). Amongst the significantly upregulated genes in our dataset we identified two orthologs of KO (required for synthesis of the GA-precursor ent-kaurene) and two orthologs of GA-20-oxydases (required to convert inactive GA12 precursors into bioactive GAs (70)).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
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“…Gibberellin biosynthesis and signalling might be an example of such clade specific adaptations. We observed that a considerable proportion of annotated DE genes in M. paleacea mentioned GA biosynthesis, in conflict with the notion that GA active compounds are not known to be produced in bryophytes (64,(68)(69)(70). Amongst the significantly upregulated genes in our dataset we identified two orthologs of KO (required for synthesis of the GA-precursor ent-kaurene) and two orthologs of GA-20-oxydases (required to convert inactive GA12 precursors into bioactive GAs (70)).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Whilst KOs were widely identified in bryophytes, there is contrasting literature on the existence of sensu stricto GA-20-oxidases (23,64,68,69,71). Furthermore, a number of GAox-related 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDs) were identified in Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii prompting the theory that non-canonical GA-oxidation reactions might catalyse the production of diverse GA-like compounds in bryophytes and tracheophytes (70,91). The similarity in transcriptional responses between M. paleacea and M. truncatula and the induction of several GAox-related 2-OGDs oxidases in our dataset encourages us to support the hypothesis that non-canonical GA-like diterpenoids are produced in bryophytes, and that the synthesis of these compounds is enhanced during symbiosis.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
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“…Bioactive GAs are plant diterpene hormones that are essential for multiple aspects of plant growth and development, including seed germination, leaf expansion, trichome development, stem elongation, flowering, male fertility, and fruit set [ 7 , 8 , 9 ]. GA biosynthesis in plants involves many enzymes and cellular compartments, as well as the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway [ 9 , 10 , 11 ]. The plastid-specific methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is particularly responsible for GA generation, as it provides the precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) required for GA biosynthesis [ 11 ].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…The plastid-specific methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is particularly responsible for GA generation, as it provides the precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) required for GA biosynthesis [ 11 ]. GGPP is converted to bioactive GAs sequentially by the copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDs) [ 9 , 10 ]. As an important part of its metabolism, deactivation of GA functions to regulate the concentration of bioactive GAs in plants can be achieved through GA2ox [ 12 ], GA methyl transferase [ 13 ], and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase [ 14 ].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning