2019
DOI: 10.1101/762393
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Mesoamerica is a cradle and the Atlantic Forest is a museum of Neotropical butterfly diversity: Insights from the evolution and biogeography of Brassolini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

Abstract: Regional species diversity is ultimately explained by speciation, extinction, and dispersal. Here we estimate dispersal and speciation rates in Neotropical rainforest biomes to propose an explanation for the distribution and diversity of extant butterfly species. We focus on the tribe Brassolini (owl butterflies and allies): a Neotropical group that comprises 17 genera and 108 species, most of them endemic to rainforest biomes. We infer a total-evidence species tree using the multispecies coalescent framework.… Show more

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Cited by 6 publications
(9 citation statements)
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“…A Caribbean-Mesoamerica origin is unusual among Neotropical Lepidoptera, as previous research generally recover origins in either the historically stable Amazonia or the dynamic orogeny of the Andes (e.g. [2,60] but see [10,61,62]). Our results show that Caribbean-Mesoamerica is the largest source (figure 2; electronic supplementary material, appendix S7), and the cradle (during the first phase) for Xylophanes (figure 4).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 95%
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“…A Caribbean-Mesoamerica origin is unusual among Neotropical Lepidoptera, as previous research generally recover origins in either the historically stable Amazonia or the dynamic orogeny of the Andes (e.g. [2,60] but see [10,61,62]). Our results show that Caribbean-Mesoamerica is the largest source (figure 2; electronic supplementary material, appendix S7), and the cradle (during the first phase) for Xylophanes (figure 4).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 95%
“…The Neotropics is one of the most species-rich regions on Earth [1]. Biodiversity studies in the Neotropics have hypothesized both the Andes and Caribbean-Mesoamerica as cradle(s) for Neotropical lineages, but only a few studies have investigated the dynamics and interactions between bioregions [1,2]. The uplift of the Andes was a major event in the geological history of South America, providing barriers and opportunities for allopatric speciation and new ecological conditions for adaption and ecological speciation of animals (e.g.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…The Atlantic Forest is one of the Earth’s most endangered biodiversity hotspots, with less than 20% of its original cover remaining. Despite all of this loss, remaining forest fragments harbor exceptionally diverse fauna and flora with extremely high levels of speciation and endemism on the one hand, and the persistence of old lineages via low species extinction rates on the other hand, which makes this biome both a cradle and a museum of Neotropical diversity [ 31 , 33 , 63 ]. Many interesting insects were reported from the Atlantic Forest, including the bioluminescent larvae of Keroplatidae fungus gnats (Diptera) [ 64 ] and rove beetles (Staphylinidae) [ 65 ], the first Neotropical meropeid Mecoptera [ 66 ], ant-brood parasitizing scuttle flies (Phoridae) [ 67 ], and many others.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Conversely, an evolutionary cradle is a region of net species overproduction, in which regional speciation rates exceed extinction rates, resulting in an increase of species richness and biogeographic range expansion ( i.e ., dispersal) to adjacent regions (Figure 1 ) (Albert et al, 2011 ; Rangel et al, 2018 ; Stebbins, 1974 ). Although these simple macroevolutionary models do not fully summarize the complexity of most biogeographic regions, the museum‐cradle paradigm is widely used in contemporary analyses of tropical diversification (Azevedo et al, 2020 ; Cássia‐Silva et al, 2020 ; Dagallier et al, 2020 ; Matos‐Maraví et al, 2019 ; Melo et al, 2021 ; Meseguer et al, 2020 ; Rangel et al, 2018 ). Some caveats that apply to these models are that the taxa of a given region are not expected to be monophyletic with respect to that of adjacent regions (Figure 1 ) (Albert et al, 2011 ) and that a region may simultaneously serve as a cradle for some taxa and a museum for others (McKenna & Farrell, 2006 ; Moreau & Bell, 2013 ).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%