This article compares migrants and adoptees of Peruvian origin residing in Europe by focusing on their respective movements out of and return to the sending country of Peru. First, it analyzes family-based reunifications by drawing on a framework from studies of adoption and kinship. Juxtaposing the experiences of adoptees with those of migrants reveals how migration, too, may be steeped in concerns about kin ties. Next, it analyzes returns of adult adoptees using a template modeled on migrant returns, focusing on the centrality of the notion of contribution. The article shows how migrants and adoptees contest the constraints of European nation-state definitions of kinship intended to limit migration. It is based on recent research with Peruvian migrants and adoptees in Spain, as well as longer-term research in Peru on migration and adoption.