2015
DOI: 10.1109/tpel.2014.2359005
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Abstract: This paper introduces a low complexity implementation of the voltage balancing algorithm aiming to reduce the switching frequency of the power devices in modular multilevel converters (MMCs). The proposed algorithm features a relatively simple implementation without any conditional execution requirements and is easily expandable regardless of the number of submodules (SMs). Two modulation techniques are evaluated, namely the staircase modulation and the phase-disposition pulse width modulation (PD-PWM) under t… Show more

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Cited by 116 publications
(68 citation statements)
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“…Capacitor voltage balancing is achieved by selecting the SM with lower voltage when the arm current is positive, and the SM with higher voltage when the arm current is negative. In order to reduce the switching losses, an algorithm that limits the number of SM transitions per switching period is implemented [13]. The voltage reference for the modulation algorithm is provided by a typical d-q current controller for grid-connected applications.…”
Section: MMC Topology and Basic Operationmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Capacitor voltage balancing is achieved by selecting the SM with lower voltage when the arm current is positive, and the SM with higher voltage when the arm current is negative. In order to reduce the switching losses, an algorithm that limits the number of SM transitions per switching period is implemented [13]. The voltage reference for the modulation algorithm is provided by a typical d-q current controller for grid-connected applications.…”
Section: MMC Topology and Basic Operationmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The voltage balancing algorithm used in this application is based on multiplying the capacitor voltages by the opposite sign of the arm current and sorting them in descending order [13]. That is, when the current goes in the charging direction (positive), the voltages are multiplied by −1, giving higher priority of activation to the ones that have the lowest values (highest values when inverted).…”
Section: Power Losses Balancing Algorithmsmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…In this paper, the voltage reference is a sinusoidal waveform with amplitude defined by the modulation index m a . It is modulated by a level-shifted PWM (LS-PWM) technique [12] and the capacitor voltages are balanced using the algorithm proposed in [13].…”
Section: A MMC Fundamentalsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Various types of modulation techniques are applicable [3], [5], [6] in order to determine the number of SMs to be inserted, while the staircase type modulation methods are more efficient over the alternative techniques as the number of output voltage levels increases [7]. Different capacitor voltage balancing strategies [8], [9] are used and the SM sorting algorithms are the most common. Circulating current control is important for the MMC in order to regulate the capacitor voltages, maintain upper and lower arm energy balance, and efficiently utilize semiconductor ratings.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%