Abstract-This paper studies different circulating current references for the modular multilevel converter (MMC). The circulating current references are obtained from the instantaneous values of the output current and modulation signal of the phase-leg. Therefore, determination of the amplitude and phase of the output current is not needed, which is a significant improvement compared to other methods such as those based on injecting specific harmonics in the circulating currents. Among the different methods studied in this paper, a new method is introduced, which is able to reduce the capacitor voltage ripples compared to the other methods. A closed-loop control is also proposed which is able to track the circulating current references. With the discussed methods the average values of the capacitor voltages are maintained at their reference while the voltage ripples are kept low. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed and discussed methods.
This paper introduces a low complexity implementation of the voltage balancing algorithm aiming to reduce the switching frequency of the power devices in modular multilevel converters (MMCs). The proposed algorithm features a relatively simple implementation without any conditional execution requirements and is easily expandable regardless of the number of submodules (SMs). Two modulation techniques are evaluated, namely the staircase modulation and the phase-disposition pulse width modulation (PD-PWM) under the conventional and the proposed algorithm. Using a circulating current controller in an MMC with 12 SMs per arm, PD-PWM yields better results compared to the staircase modulation technique. The test condition for this comparison is such that the power devices operate at a similar switching frequency and produce similar amplitudes to the capacitor voltage ripples in both modulation techniques. The results are verified through extensive simulations and experiments on a low power phase-leg MMC laboratory prototype.
This paper proposes an algorithm to calculate the optimal amplitude and phase of the harmonic current components that can be injected in the circulating currents of a modular multilevel converter (MMC) to minimize the capacitor voltage fluctuations. An optimal second harmonic component and an\ud
optimal set of second and fourth harmonic components are proposed. Simulation results are obtained in MATLAB/Simulink environment to study the effectiveness of the calculated optimal currents. Selected experimental results have been obtained from an MMC laboratory prototype, testing the effects of the circulating currents. The reported results demonstrate the effectiveness of using a fourth harmonic component in the\ud
circulating current, which improves the effect of the second harmonic on reducing the capacitor voltage fluctuations.Postprint (published version
In this paper, a new discontinuous modulation technique is presented for the operation of the modular multilevel converter (MMC). The modulation technique is based on adding a zero-sequence to the original modulation signals so that the MMC arms are clamped to the upper or lower terminals of the dc-link bus.The clamping intervals are controlled according to the absolute value of the output current to minimize the switching losses of the MMC. A significant reduction in the capacitor voltage ripples is achieved, especially when operating with low modulation indices. Furthermore, a circulating current control strategy suitable for this modulation technique is also proposed. Simulation and experimental results under various operating points are reported along with evaluation and comparison results against a conventional carrier-based pulse-width modulation method.
Abstract-This paper presents a fault tolerant configuration for the modular multilevel converter (MMC). The procedure is able to detect faults in voltage sensors and semiconductor switching devices, and it can reconfigure the system so that it can keep on operating. Both switch and sensor faults can be detected by comparing the output voltage of a set of submodules (SMs), which is measured by a so-called supervisory sensor, with two calculated reference voltages. Faults in the supervisory sensors are also considered. Sensor faults are overcome by using a measuring technique based on estimates that are periodically updated with the voltage measurements of the supervisory sensors. Additional SMs are included in the arms so that the MMC can bypass a faulty SM and continue operating without affecting the output voltage of the phase-leg. Experimental results obtained from a low-power MMC prototype are presented in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.
Abstract-This paper presents a new technique for measuring the capacitor voltages in a modular multilevel converter (MMC) using a reduced number of voltage sensors. With this technique, the minimum number of voltage sensors per arm is two. Each sensor measures the output voltage of a set of submodules (SMs) connected in series and acquires a new measurement when there is only one SM activated within the set. The acquired value corresponds to the capacitor voltage of the activated SM minus the voltage drops produced in the switches. A simple mathematical model is used to estimate all the SM capacitor voltages, and it is then updated whenever there is a new measurement available. An algorithm that enforces the periodic update of the voltage measurements is also presented. The proposed measuring technique highly reduces the number of voltage sensors, hence reducing the complexity and costs of the signal conditioning and data acquisition stages. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique.Index Terms-Modular multilevel converter, Voltage measurement, Capacitor voltage estimator, Reduced number of sensors.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.