Oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells may contribute to the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Thymoquinone (TQ), an active component derived from Nigella sativa, possesses antioxidative effect. However, the role of TQ in RPE cells under oxidative stress condition remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the protective effect of TQ against hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced oxidative stress in human RPE cells. Our results showed that TQ improved the cell viability and apoptosis in H 2 O 2induced ARPE cells. We also found that the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde induced by H 2 O 2 were reduced after the pretreatment of TQ. In addition, the inhibitory effect of H 2 O 2 on the glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase activity was markedly attenuated by TQ pretreatment. Moreover, TQ enhanced the activation of Nrf2/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) signaling pathway in H 2 O 2 -induced ARPE cells. Knockdown of Nrf2 abolished the protective effect of TQ on H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that TQ protected ARPE cells from H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. K E Y W O R D S age-related macular degeneration (AMD), apoptosis, Nrf2/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) signaling pathway, oxidative stress, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, thymoquinone (TQ)
MicroRNAs are a set of highly conserved non-coding RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional/translational levels by binding to the 3′-UTR of diverse target genes. Increasing evidence indicates that miRNAs not only play a vital role in many biological processes, but they are also frequently deregulated in pathological conditions, including cancer. The miR-320 family is one of many tumor suppressor families and is composed of five members, which has been demonstrated to be related to the repression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inhibition, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Moreover, this family has been shown to regulate drug resistance, and act as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of cancer. In this review, we summarized recent research with reference to the tumor suppressor function of miR-320 and the regulation mechanisms of miR-320 expression. The collected evidence shown here supports that miR-320 may act as a novel biomarker for cancer prognosis and therapeutic response to cancer treatment.
From this study, the distributions of tHcy levels were skewed to the right and the boys had higher plasma tHcy levels than girls. Plasma tHcy levels were significantly positively associated with BMI among boys. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between tHcy and CVD risk factors among children for the better prevention of heart disease in early life.
To investigate the inhibitory effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) on apoptosis caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1(HSV-1) in Human Glioma Cells (U251), U251 cells were infected by HSV-1 at a multiplicity of infection of 5 and GRb1, GRb1+HSV-1, HSV-1 and control groups. MTT and cell apoptosis assays were used to detect the inhibitory effects of GRb1 on the apoptosis of U251 cells that caused by HSV-1 infection for various concentrations of drug and virus treatments by MTT assay. We found that in the 400 μg/mL GRb1 and 400 μg/mL GRb1+HSV-1 groups, MTT values were higher than control group at all times (P<0. 05). Moreover, the apoptosis rate in the 400 μg/mL GRb1+HSV-1 group was lower than the HSV-1 group (P<0. 05). These results confirmed that, at appropriate concentrations, GRb1 could inhibit nerve cell apoptosis in HSV-1 infections.
Background: The goal of this study was to describe the expenses related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) management and care in Nantong Infectious Disease Hospital from October 2013 through June 2017. Methods: The information of 610 HIV/AIDS inpatients were collected from the Electronic Medical Record System of the hospital. Univariate and path analysis were employed to evaluate the association between hospitalization expense and its related factors. Results: The average hospitalization expenses per person was 5454 RMB (Renminbi, the currency of China, about $808 USD) and 23,555 RMB (about $3489 USD), respectively for HIV/AIDS patients. The average length of hospital stay was 10.0 ± 5.5 days for HIV patients and 21.7 ± 12.4 days for AIDS patients. For HIV patients, laboratory test fees constituted 37.46% of total expenses; while drug fees accounted for the largest proportion for AIDS patients. Path analysis indicated that the length of hospital stay was the most important factor affecting total expenses (total path coefficient = 0.563 for HIV patients and 0.649 for AIDS patients). Total expenses for HIV-infected females was higher than that of males (total path coefficient = 0.217), and the more complications led to higher expenses for AIDS patients. Conclusions: Though antiretroviral therapy (ART) is provided for free in China, associated medical care, particularly hospitalizations and fees, continue to drive up the medical costs of patients living with HIV and AIDS. Understanding the factors influencing these costs are crucial for determining policies and strategies that can reduce the economic burden of HIV/AIDS patients in China.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.