Large-scale fabrication of organic solar cells requires an active layer with high thickness tolerability and the use of environment-friendly solvents. Thick films with high-performance can be achieved via a ternary strategy studied herein. The ternary system consists of one polymer donor, one small molecule donor, and one fullerene acceptor. The small molecule enhances the crystallinity and face-on orientation of the active layer, leading to improved thickness tolerability compared with that of a polymer-fullerene binary system. An active layer with 270 nm thickness exhibits an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.78%, while the PCE is less than 8% with such thick film for binary system. Furthermore, large-area devices are successfully fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/Silver gride or indium tin oxide (ITO)-based transparent flexible substrates. The product shows a high PCE of 8.28% with an area of 1.25 cm for a single cell and 5.18% for a 20 cm module. This study demonstrates that ternary organic solar cells exhibit great potential for large-scale fabrication and future applications.
The open‐circuit voltage (Voc) of perovskite solar cells is limited by non‐radiative recombination at perovskite/carrier transport layer (CTL) interfaces. 2D perovskite post‐treatments offer a means to passivate the top interface; whereas, accessing and passivating the buried interface underneath the perovskite film requires new material synthesis strategies. It is posited that perovskite ink containing species that bind strongly to substrates can spontaneously form a passivating layer with the bottom CTL. The concept using organic spacer cations with rich NH2 groups is implemented, where readily available hydrogens have large binding affinity to under‐coordinated oxygens on the metal oxide substrate surface, inducing preferential crystallization of a thin 2D layer at the buried interface. The passivation effect of this 2D layer is examined using steady‐state and time‐resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy: the 2D interlayer suppresses non‐radiative recombination at the buried perovskite/CTL interface, leading to a 72% reduction in surface recombination velocity. This strategy enables a 65 mV increase in Voc for NiOx based p–i–n devices, and a 100 mV increase in Voc for SnO2‐based n–i–p devices. Inverted solar cells with 20.1% power conversion efficiency (PCE) for 1.70 eV and 22.9% PCE for 1.55 eV bandgap perovskites are demonstrated.
A biobased benzoxazine resin (Dz-f) demonstrating excellent thermal properties was synthesized from daidzein and furfurylamine by using a microwave heating method. The chemical structure of synthesized benzoxazine monomer was identified by FTIR and NMR ( H and C NMR) before it was cured and its thermal properties evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), TGA, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The cured resin p(Dz-f) exhibited a glass transition temperature (T ) of 391 °C, a very high char yield of 68.7 %, and outstanding thermal stability; the T value obtained was the highest thermal stability value ever reported for polybenzoxazine with a high biobased content. Moreover, Dz-f demonstrated a satisfying processability, which was rare for the high-performance thermosetting resins. This work provided us with a new strategy for the preparation of high biocontent resins with excellent thermal properties. In addition, the combination of biobased feedstocks with a microwave-assisted heating method as well as the potential application of this approach in high-end fields might perpetuate remarkable progress towards the sustainable development of the polymeric industry.
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