We developed a very effective hyperthermia system for successful photothermal cancer therapy. Instead of applying individual gold nanorods (GNRs) that can absorb NIR light, GNRs were loaded into functional nanocarriers that could provide stable storage of GNRs and selective delivery to a target tumor site. The functional nanocarriers (chitosan-conjugated, Pluronic-based nanocarriers) were prepared by chemically cross-linking Pluronic F 68 with chitosan conjugation to form a flexible, soft, and excellent reservoir for biomacromolecules as well as tumor targeting. In vivo characteristics of the nanocarriers including a long circulation time, a good tumor accumulation, and low liver uptake were previously characterized by us. When GNRs were delivered by using these nanocarriers, much enhanced in vitro cellular uptake and a photothermal effect were observed for a cancer cell line. More importantly, an intravenous injection of this system followed by NIR laser irradiation to the tumor site resulted in a very efficient thermolysis in vivo. Thus, apparently complete tumor resorption was achieved without damage to the surrounding tissue, suggesting a promising candidate for clinical phototherapeutic applications.
Abstract. The Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation initiative (QBOi) aims to improve the fidelity of tropical stratospheric variability in general circulation and Earth system models by conducting coordinated numerical experiments and analysis. In the equatorial stratosphere, the QBO is the most conspicuous mode of variability. Five coordinated experiments have therefore been designed to (i) evaluate and compare the verisimilitude of modelled QBOs under presentday conditions, (ii) identify robustness (or alternatively the spread and uncertainty) in the simulated QBO response to commonly imposed changes in model climate forcings (e.g. a doubling of CO 2 amounts), and (iii) examine model dependence of QBO predictability. This paper documents these experiments and the recommended output diagnostics. The rationale behind the experimental design and choice of diagnostics is presented. To facilitate scientific interpretation of the results in other planned QBOi studies, consistent descriptions of the models performing each experiment set are given, with those aspects particularly relevant for simulating the QBO tabulated for easy comparison.
Very elastic PLCL [poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone), 50:50] copolymers were synthesized and extruded into porous tubular scaffolds (pore size 150 +/- 50 microm, porosity 90%) for the application to tissue engineering. The copolymers were basically random and amorphous. However, two T(g)'s (glass transition temperatures) were observed in dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and also in differential scanning calorimetry thermograms. Furthermore, microdomains (about 17 nm in size) were indicated on the small-angle X-ray scattering profile and finally confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Therefore, the PLCL copolymer was probably composed of a soft matrix of mainly epsilon-caprolactone moieties and hard domains containing more L-lactide units to exhibit a rubberlike elasticity in virtue of the physically cross-linked structure. The smooth muscle cells seeded scaffolds were implanted into nude mice subcutaneously for up to 15 weeks to monitor the in vivo degradation. In addition, they were degraded in vitro in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) for up to 1 year to compare the results each other. All the scaffolds degraded slowly in vivo and in vitro even in the form of a highly porous thin membrane. However, the degradation rate was somewhat faster for in vivo than for in vitro. This should be explained by enzymes that might have played a certain role in the degradation in the body. In addition, the epsilon-caprolactone moieties degraded faster than the L-lactide units did in these PLCL scaffolds, although their hydrophilicities are in the opposite order. This behavior appeared more prominently in the in vivo case. This should result from that the amorphous regions composed of mainly epsilon-caprolactone units might have been first attacked by water because water can penetrate into the amorphous regions easier than the hard domains containing more L-lactides.
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