Aquaculture is the fastest growing farmed food sector and will soon become the primary source of fish and shellfish for human diets. In contrast to crops and livestock, production is derived from numerous, exceptionally diverse species that are typically in the early stages of domestication. Genetic improvement of production traits via well-designed, managed breeding programmes has great potential to help meet the rising seafood demand driven by human population growth. Supported by continuous advances in sequencing and bioinformatics, genomics is increasingly being applied across the broad range of aquaculture species and at all stages of the domestication process to optimize selective breeding. In the future, combining genomic selection with biotechnological innovations, such as genome editing and surrogate broodstock technologies, may further expedite genetic improvement in aquaculture.
The regulation and timing of spindle pole body (SPB) duplication and maturation in fission yeast was examined by transmission electron microscopy. When cells are arrested at G1 by nitrogen starvation, the SPB is unduplicated. On release from G1, the SPBs were duplicated after 1-2 h. In cells arrested at S by hydroxyurea, SPBs are duplicated but not mature. In G1 arrest/release experiments with cdc2.33 cells at the restrictive temperature, SPBs remained single, whereas in cells at the permissive temperature, SPBs were duplicated. In cdc10 mutant cells, the SPBs seem not only to be duplicated but also to undergo partial maturation, including invagination of the nuclear envelope underneath the SPB. There may be an S-phase-specific inhibitor of SPB maturation whose expression is under control of cdc10(+). This model was examined by induction of overreplication of the genome by overexpression of rum1p or cdc18p. In cdc18p-overexpressing cells, the SPBs are duplicated but not mature, suggesting that cdc18p is one component of this feedback mechanism. In contrast, cells overexpressing rum1p have large, deformed SPBs accompanied by other features of maturation and duplication. We propose a feedback mechanism for maturation of the SPB that is coupled with exit from S to trigger morphological changes.
Public interest in complementary and alternative medicine has been increased worldwide, due to its wide applications in cancer prevention and treatment. Cordycepin is one of the most common and crucial types of complementary and alternative medicine. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), a derivative of adenosine, was first isolated from medicine drug . Cordycepin has been widely used as one compound for antitumor, which has been found to exert antiangiogenic, anti-metastatic, and antiproliferative effects, as well as inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is not well known. This review will clarify anti-tumor mechanisms of Cordycepin, which regulate signaling pathways related with tumor growth and metastasis. Cordycepin inhibit tumor growth via upregulating tumor apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest and targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs). Cordycepin regulates tumor microenvironment via suppressing tumor metastasis-related pathways. Thus, Cordycepins may be one of important supplement or substitute medicine drug for cancer treatment.
The telomere bouquet, i.e., telomere clustering on the nuclear envelope (NE) during meiotic prophase, is thought to promote homologous chromosome pairing. Using a visual screen, we identified bqt2/im295, a mutant that disrupts telomere clustering in fission yeast. Bqt2p is required for linking telomeres to the meiotic spindle pole body (SPB) but not for attachment of telomeres or the SPB to the NE. Bqt2p is expressed upon pheromone sensing and colocalizes thereafter to Sad1p, an SPB protein. This localization only depends on Bqt1p, not on other identified proteins required for telomere clustering. Upon pheromone sensing, generation of Sad1p foci next to telomeres depends on Bqt2p. However, depletion of Bqt2p from the SPB is dispensable for dissolving the telomere bouquet at the end of meiotic prophase. Therefore, telomere bouquet formation requires Bqt2p as a linking component and is finely regulated during meiotic progression.
Centrosome aberrations caused by misregulated centrosome maturation result in defective spindle and genomic instability. Here we report that the fission yeast homolog of the human transcription factor EAP30, Dot2, negatively regulates meiotic spindle pole body (SPB, the yeast equivalent of centrosome) maturation. dot2 mutants show excess electron-dense material accumulating near SPBs, which we refer to as aberrant microtubule organization centers (AMtOCs). These AMtOCs assemble multipolar spindles, leading to chromosome missegregation. SPB aberrations were associated with elevated levels of Pcp1, the fission yeast ortholog of pericentrin/kentrin, and reducing pcp1(+) expression significantly suppressed AMtOCs in dot2-439 cells. Our findings, therefore, uncover meiosis-specific regulation of SPB maturation and provide evidence that a member of the conserved EAP30 family is required for maintenance of genome stability through regulation of SPB maturation. EAP30 is part of a transcription factor complex associated with acute myeloid leukemia, so these results may have relevance to human cancer.
Infectious and parasitic diseases have major negative economic and animal welfare impacts on aquaculture of salmonid species. Improved knowledge of the functional basis of host response and genetic resistance to these diseases is key to developing preventative and treatment options. Cell lines provide valuable models to study infectious diseases in salmonids, and genome editing using CRISPR/Cas systems provides an exciting avenue to evaluate the function of specific genes in those systems. While CRISPR/Cas editing has been successfully performed in a Chinook salmon cell line (CHSE-214), there are no reports to date of editing of cell lines derived from the most commercially relevant salmonid species Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout, which are difficult to transduce and therefore edit using lentivirus-mediated methods. In the current study, a method of genome editing of salmonid cell lines using ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes was optimised and tested in the most commonly used salmonid fish cell lines: Atlantic salmon (SHK-1 and ASK cell lines), rainbow trout (RTG-2) and Chinook salmon (CHSE-214). Electroporation of RNP based on either Cas9 or Cas12a was efficient at targeted editing of all the tested lines (typically > 90% cells edited), and the choice of enzyme expands the number of potential target sites for editing within the genomes of these species. These optimised protocols will facilitate functional genetic studies in salmonid cell lines, which are widely used as model systems for infectious diseases in aquaculture.
Aquaculture is playing an increasingly important role in meeting global demands for seafood, particularly in low and middle income countries. Genetic improvement of aquaculture species has major untapped potential to help achieve this, with selective breeding and genome editing offering exciting avenues to expedite this process. However, limitations to these breeding and editing approaches include long generation intervals of many fish species, alongside both technical and regulatory barriers to the application of genome editing in commercial production. Surrogate broodstock technology facilitates the production of donor-derived gametes in surrogate parents, and comprises transplantation of germ cells of donors into sterilised recipients. There are many successful examples of intra- and inter-species germ cell transfer and production of viable offspring in finfish, and this leads to new opportunities to address the aforementioned limitations. Firstly, surrogate broodstock technology raises the opportunity to improve genome editing via the use of cultured germ cells, to reduce mosaicism and potentially enable in vivo CRISPR screens in the progeny of surrogate parents. Secondly, the technology has pertinent applications in preservation of aquatic genetic resources, and in facilitating breeding of high-value species which are otherwise difficult to rear in captivity. Thirdly, it holds potential to drastically reduce the effective generation interval in aquaculture breeding programmes, expediting the rate of genetic gain. Finally, it provides new opportunities for dissemination of tailored, potentially genome edited, production animals of high genetic merit for farming. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of surrogate broodstock technology, and discusses the next steps for its applications in research and production. The integration and synergy of genomics, genome editing, and reproductive technologies have exceptional potential to expedite genetic gain in aquaculture species in the coming decades.
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