Although the incidences are increasing day after day, scientists and researchers taken individually or by research group are trying to fight against cancer by several ways and also by different approaches and techniques. Sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, diterpenoids, and polyphenolic represent a large and diverse group of naturally occurring compounds found in a variety of fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants with various anticancer properties. In this review, our aim is to give our perspective on the current status of the natural compounds belonging to these groups and discuss their natural sources, their anticancer activity, their molecular targets, and their mechanism of actions with specific emphasis on apoptosis pathways, which may help the further design and conduct of preclinical and clinical trials. Unlike pharmaceutical drugs, the selected natural compounds induce apoptosis by targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways including transcription factors, growth factors, tumor cell survival factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and angiogenesis that are frequently deregulated in cancers and suggest that their simultaneous targeting by these compounds could result in efficacious and selective killing of cancer cells. This review suggests that they provide a novel opportunity for treatment of cancer, but clinical trials are still required to further validate them in cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Prev Res; 7(11);
Hornworts, liverworts and mosses are three early diverging clades of land plants, and together comprise the bryophytes. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the hornwort Anthoceros angustus. Phylogenomic inferences confirm the monophyly of bryophytes, with hornworts sister to liverworts and mosses. The simple morphology of hornworts correlates with low genetic redundancy in plant body plan, while the basic transcriptional regulation toolkit for plant development has already been established in this early land plant lineage. Although the Anthoceros genome is small and characterized by minimal redundancy, expansions are observed in gene families related to RNA editing, UV protection and desiccation tolerance. The genome of A. angustus bears the signatures of horizontally transferred genes from bacteria and fungi, in particular of genes operating in stress-response and metabolic pathways. Our study provides insight into the unique features of hornworts and their molecular adaptations to live on land.
BackgroundCircular RNAs (circRNAs), a subclass of non-coding RNAs, play essential roles in tumorigenesis and aggressiveness. Our previous study has identified that circAGO2 drives gastric cancer progression through activating human antigen R (HuR), a protein stabilizing AU-rich element-containing mRNAs. However, the functions and underlying mechanisms of circRNAs derived from HuR in gastric cancer progression remain elusive.MethodsCircRNAs derived from HuR were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and validated by Sanger sequencing. Biotin-labeled RNA pull-down, mass spectrometry, RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA electrophoretic mobility shift, and in vitro binding assays were applied to identify proteins interacting with circRNA. Gene expression regulation was observed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, dual-luciferase assay, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and western blot assays. Gain- and loss-of-function studies were performed to observe the impacts of circRNA and its protein partner on the growth, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.ResultsCirc-HuR (hsa_circ_0049027) was predominantly detected in the nucleus, and was down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Ectopic expression of circ-HuR suppressed the growth, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, circ-HuR interacted with CCHC-type zinc finger nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP), and subsequently restrained its binding to HuR promoter, resulting in down-regulation of HuR and repression of tumor progression.ConclusionsCirc-HuR serves as a tumor suppressor to inhibit CNBP-facilitated HuR expression and gastric cancer progression, indicating a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.
miRNAs are associated with various types of cancer due to their ability to affect expression of genes that modulate tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the role of miR-141 in pancreatic cancer. The analysis of clinical characteristics showed that miR-141 was significantly downregulated in tissues and cell lines of pancreatic cancer. Moreover, the decreased miR-141 level was significantly associated with tumor size and TNM stage, as well as lymph node and distant metastasis. Meanwhile, both Kaplan-Meier and multivariate survival analysis showed decreased miR-141 were associated with overall survival. Overexpression of miR-141 in pancreatic cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation, clonogenicity, and invasion; induced G 1 arrest and apoptosis; and enhanced chemosensitivity. To understand how miR-141 mediates the phenotype of pancreatic cancer cells, a bioinformatics tool was used to identify MAP4K4 as a potential target of miR-141. The DualLuciferase reporter gene assay showed that miR-141 binds directly to the 3 0 -untranslated region (3 0 UTR) of MAP4K4 to inhibit MAP4K4 expression. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that MAP4K4 expression was inversely correlated with miR-141 expression both in pancreatic cancer samples and cell lines. Knockdown of MAP4K4 inhibited cell proliferation, clonogenicity, and invasion, induced G 1 arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced chemosensitivity. In a nude mouse xenograft model, both overexpression of miR-141 and knockdown of MAP4K4 significantly repressed pancreatic cancer cell growth. Therefore, we conclude that miR-141 targets MAP4K4, acts as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer cells, and may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for miRNA-based pancreatic cancer therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(11); 2569-80. Ó2013 AACR.
a b s t r a c tInterleukin 10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that is crucial for dampening the inflammatory response after pathogen invasion, and was found to be produced by macrophages after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It remains unclear whether microRNA-mediated regulatory mechanism is involved in LPS-induced IL-10 production. Here we reported that miR-98 expression in macrophages significantly decreased following LPS stimulation. We also found that miR-98 targets the 3'untranslated region of IL-10 transcript. Overexpression of miR-98 inhibited TLR4-triggered IL-10 production and promoted COX-2 expression. We further demonstrated that miR-98 significantly mitigated the induction of endotoxin tolerance, suggesting that miR-98-mediated posttranscriptional control could potentially be involved in fine tuning the critical level of IL-10 production in endotoxin tolerance.
A novel triple cell neurovascular unit (NVU) model co-culturing with neurons, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and astrocytes was established in this study for investigating the cerebral diseases and screening the candidates of therapeutic drug. We have first performed the cell identification and morphological characterization, analyzed the specific protein expression and determined the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function of the co-culture model under normal condition. Then, we further determined the BBB function, inflammation, cell injury and the variation of neuroprotective factor in this model after anoxia-reoxygenation. The results suggest that this model exhibited a better BBB function and significantly increased expression of P-glycoprotein (Pg-P) and ZO-1 compared with BMECs only or co-culture with astrocytes or neurons. After anoxia-reoxygenation, the pathological changes of this model were basically resemblance to the pathological changes of brain cells and BBB in vivo. And nimodipine, an antagonist of calcium, could reverse those changes as well. According to our observations, we deduce that this triple cell co-culture model exhibits the basic structure, function and cell-cell interaction of NVU, which may offer a more proper in vitro system of NVU for the further investigation of cerebral diseases and drug screening.
miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that participate in a variety of biologic processes, and dysregulation of miRNA is always associated with cancer development and progression. Aberrant expression of miR-148b has been found in some types of cancer, but its expression and potential biologic role in pancreatic cancer are still largely unknown. In this study, our data showed that miR-148b was significantly downregulated in 48 pairs of human pancreatic cancer tissues and five cell lines. Furthermore, the deregulated miR-148b was correlated with increased tumor size, late tumor-node-metastasis stage, lymphatic invasion, distant metastasis, and worse prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Functional studies indicated overexpression of miR-148b dramatically suppressed the growth of cancer cells, attributable to induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest at S-phase. Meanwhile, miR-148b remarkably inhibited invasion and enhanced chemosensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-148b was able to inhibit tumorigenicity in nude mice. Further studies revealed that AMPKa1 might be the direct target gene of miR-148b, and overexpressed AMPKa1 inversely correlated with miR-148b in pancreatic cancer. Silencing of AMPKa1 with RNA interference inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and also induced apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and inhibited invasion of cancer cells, which is consistent with the effects of miR-148b overexpression. In conclusion, miR-148b can inhibit cell proliferation, invasion, and enhance chemosensitivity of pancreatic cancer by targeting AMPKa1. Our present results implicate the potential effects of miR-148b on prognosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer.
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