To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, approximately 150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent (more frequent) microbial genes of the cohort and probably includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively.
The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.
BackgroundThere is a rapidly increasing amount of de novo genome assembly using next-generation sequencing (NGS) short reads; however, several big challenges remain to be overcome in order for this to be efficient and accurate. SOAPdenovo has been successfully applied to assemble many published genomes, but it still needs improvement in continuity, accuracy and coverage, especially in repeat regions.FindingsTo overcome these challenges, we have developed its successor, SOAPdenovo2, which has the advantage of a new algorithm design that reduces memory consumption in graph construction, resolves more repeat regions in contig assembly, increases coverage and length in scaffold construction, improves gap closing, and optimizes for large genome.ConclusionsBenchmark using the Assemblathon1 and GAGE datasets showed that SOAPdenovo2 greatly surpasses its predecessor SOAPdenovo and is competitive to other assemblers on both assembly length and accuracy. We also provide an updated assembly version of the 2008 Asian (YH) genome using SOAPdenovo2. Here, the contig and scaffold N50 of the YH genome were ~20.9 kbp and ~22 Mbp, respectively, which is 3-fold and 50-fold longer than the first published version. The genome coverage increased from 81.16% to 93.91%, and memory consumption was ~2/3 lower during the point of largest memory consumption.
COVID-19 disease, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, has resulted in more than 15.5 million infections and 634,000 deaths worldwide. A recent study of hospitals in New York City, at the initial epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, reported that, during March 2020, 21% of patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 died 1 . These findings are aligned with outcomes observed in the Mount Sinai Health System 2,3 . There are currently no curative or preventive therapies for COVID-19, highlighting the need to enhance current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis for the rational development of therapeutics.Recent studies have suggested that, in addition to direct viral damage, uncontrolled inflammation contributes to disease severity in 5 ). Consistent with this hypothesis, high levels of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and D-dimer, high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio  and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines 6,8-11 have been observed in patients with severe diseases. Pathogenic inflammation, also referred to as cytokine storm, shares similarities with what was previously seen in patients infected with other severe coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus 12 , and bears similarities to cytokine release syndrome (CRS) observed in patients with cancer treated with chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR) T cells 13 . Tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor inhibitor, is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for CRS in patients receiving CAR T cells 14 . Several single-center studies have used IL-6 inhibitors to treat patients with COVID-19 with some clinical benefits 15 and reported failures 14 . Beyond IL-6, several cytokines have been shown to be elevated in CRS and to contribute to tissue damage. TNF-α is important in nearly all acute inflammatory reactions, acting as an amplifier of inflammation. TNF-α blockade has been used to treat more than ten different autoimmune inflammatory diseases, suggesting that this might be a potential therapeutic approach to reduce organ damage in patients with ). IL-1 is also a highly active pro-inflammatory cytokine, and monotherapy blocking
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is highly polymorphic and rich in repetitive sequences, with some transposable elements still actively shaping variation. Transcriptome studies reveal an extensive set of genes responding to environmental stress. The expansion of genes coding for heat shock protein 70 and inhibitors of apoptosis is probably central to the oyster's adaptation to sessile life in the highly stressful intertidal zone. Our analyses also show that shell formation in molluscs is more complex than currently understood and involves extensive participation of cells and their exosomes. The oyster genome sequence fills a void in our understanding of the Lophotrochozoa.Oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and harbour most of the phylum diversity of the animal kingdom. Understanding marine biodiversity and its evolution remains a major challenge. The Pacific oyster C. gigas (Thunberg, 1793) is a marine bivalve belonging to the phylum Mollusca, which contains the largest number of described marine animal species 1 . Molluscs have vital roles in the functioning of marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, and have had major effects on humans, primarily as food sources but also as sources of dyes, decorative pearls and shells, vectors of parasites, and biofouling or destructive agents. Many molluscs are important fishery and aquaculture species, as well as models for studying neurobiology, biomineralization, ocean acidification and adaptation to coastal environments under climate change 2,3 . As the most speciose member of the Lophotrochozoa, phylum Mollusca is central to our understanding of the biology and evolution of this superphylum of protostomes.As sessile marine animals living in estuarine and intertidal regions, oysters must cope with harsh and dynamically changing environments. Abiotic factors such as temperature and salinity fluctuate wildly, and toxic metals and desiccation also pose serious challenges. Filter-feeding oysters face tremendous exposure to microbial pathogens. Oysters do have a notable physical line of defence against predation and desiccation in the formation of thick calcified shells, a key evolutionary innovation making molluscs a successful group. However, acidification of the world's oceans by uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide poses a potentially serious threat to this ancient adaptation 4 . Understanding biomineralization and molluscan shell formation is, thus, a major area of interest 5 . Crassostrea gigas is also an interesting model for developmental biology owing to its mosaic development with typical molluscan stages, including trochophore and veliger larvae and metamorphosis.A complete genome sequence of C. gigas would enable a more th...
The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapaThe Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project Consortium 1 Abstract:The Brassicaceae family which includes Arabidopsis thaliana, is a natural priority for reaching beyond botanical models to more deeply sample angiosperm genomic and functional diversity. Here we report the draft genome sequence and its annoation of Brassica rapa, one of the two ancestral species of oilseed rape. We modeled 41,174 protein-coding genes in the B. rapa genome. B. rapa has experienced only the second genome triplication reported to date, with its close relationship to A. thaliana providing a useful outgroup for investigating many consequences of triplication for its structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one copy containing a greater proportion of genes expected to have been present in its ancestor (70%) than the remaining two (46% and 36%). Both a generally rapid evolutionary rate, and specific copy number amplifications of particular gene families, may contribute to the remarkable propensity of Brassica species for the development of new morphological variants. The B. rapa genome provides a new resource for comparative and evolutionary analysis of the Brassicaceae genomes and also a platform for genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops.2
Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.