The use of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors has shown promise for a variety of malignancies. In this investigation, we define the activity of this class of inhibitors in combination with traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy in endometrial cancer cells. Significant reductions in growth were observed in Ark2 and KLE endometrial cancer cells following treatment with paclitaxel, doxorubicin, carboplatin, or the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). However, only combined treatment with TSA/paclitaxel caused synergistic inhibition of cell growth. This combination also resulted in significant changes in cell morphology. Using cell cycle analysis, nuclear staining, and Western blot analysis for poly(ADPribose) polymerase and caspase-9 degradation products, TSA/paclitaxel showed the most dramatic activation of the apoptotic cascade. These effects were also observed when the HDAC inhibitors HDAC inhibitor-1 or oxamflatin were substituted for TSA. The anticancer properties of paclitaxel are known to result in part from inhibition of microtubule depolymerization, which results in apoptosis. We show that TSA administration also stabilizes microtubules via A-tubulin acetylation. Furthermore, using Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis, treatment with TSA/paclitaxel led to a significant increase in acetylated tubulin and microtubule stabilization. These effects were confirmed in a mouse xenograft model. Moreover, TSA/paclitaxel resulted in a 50% reduction in tumor weight compared with either agent alone. This study provides in vivo evidence of nonhistone protein acetylation as one possible mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors reduce cancer growth. The TSA/paclitaxel combination seems to hold promise for the treatment of serous endometrial carcinoma and other malignancies with limited sensitivity to paclitaxel.
The Legal Judgment Prediction (LJP) is to determine judgment results based on the fact descriptions of the cases. LJP usually consists of multiple subtasks, such as applicable law articles prediction, charges prediction, and the term of the penalty prediction. These multiple subtasks have topological dependencies, the results of which affect and verify each other. However, existing methods use dependencies of results among multiple subtasks inefficiently. Moreover, for cases with similar descriptions but different penalties, current methods cannot predict accurately because the word collocation information is ignored. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Perspective Bi-Feedback Network with the Word Collocation Attention mechanism based on the topology structure among subtasks. Specifically, we design a multi-perspective forward prediction and backward verification framework to utilize result dependencies among multiple subtasks effectively. To distinguish cases with similar descriptions but different penalties, we integrate word collocations features of fact descriptions into the network via an attention mechanism. The experimental results show our model achieves significant improvements over baselines on all prediction tasks.
Background: The traditional treatment for diabetes usually requires frequent insulin injections to maintain normoglycemia, which is painful and difficult to achieve blood glucose control. Results: To solve these problems, a non-invasive and painless oral delivery nanoparticle system with bioadhesive ability was developed by amphipathic 2-nitroimidazole-l-cysteine-alginate (NI-CYS-ALG) conjugates. Moreover, in order to enhance blood glucose regulation, an intelligent glucose-responsive switch in this nanoparticle system was achieved by loading with insulin and glucose oxidase (GOx) which could supply a stimulus-sensitive turnover strategy. In vitro tests illustrated that the insulin release behavior was switched "ON" in response to hyperglycemic state by GOx catalysis and "OFF" by normal glucose levels. Moreover, in vivo tests on type I diabetic rats, this system displayed a significant hypoglycemic effect, avoiding hyperglycemia and maintaining a normal range for up to 14 h after oral administration. Conclusion: The stimulus-sensitive turnover strategy with bioadhesive oral delivery mode indicates a potential for the development of synthetic GR-NPs for diabetes therapy, which may provide a rational design of proteins, low molecular drugs, as well as nucleic acids, for intelligent releasing via the oral route.
In recent times, co-delivery of therapeutics has emerged as a promising strategy for treating dreadful diseases such as cancer.Materials and methodsIn this study, we developed a novel nanocarrier based on bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) that co-loaded with siRNA and doxorubicin (DOX) using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a cross-linker (BMs/DP/siRNA). The delivery efficiency of siRNA as well as the pH-responsive release of DOX, and synergistic efficacy of these therapeutics in vitro were systematically investigated.ResultsThe structure of DOX–PEI (DP) conjugates that synthesized via hydrazone bond formation was confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The in vitro release experiments showed that the DP conjugate (DOX-loading efficiency – 5.77%±0.08%) exhibited the long-term release behavior. Furthermore, the optimal BMs/DP/siRNA particle size of 107.2 nm and the zeta potential value of 31.1±1.0 mV facilitated enhanced cellular internalization efficiency. Moreover, the agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the co-delivery system could protect siRNA from degradation in serum and RNase A. In addition, the cytotoxicity assay showed that BMs/DP/siRNA could achieve an excellent synergistic effect compared to that of siRNA delivery alone. The acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double staining assay also showed that BMs/DP/siRNA complex could induce cells in a stage of late apoptosis and nanocomplex located in the proximity of the nucleus.ConclusionThe combination of gene and chemotherapeutic drug using BMs is highly efficient, and the BMs/DP/siRNA would be a promising therapeutic strategy for the future therapeutics.
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