Quantitative fluid velocity and turbulence measurements, which were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) during the course of the physical modeling of the molten steel flow in a continuous casting billet mold, are presented. The experimental findings are compared to the results obtained by the computational simulation of the flow using the high-Reynolds-number and five lowReynolds-number k-ε turbulence models. The predictive capabilities of these turbulence models were assessed in comparison to the experimentally measured axial velocity and turbulence kinetic energy values. The measured turbulence velocity fluctuations in various directions strongly suggest the nonisotropic nature of the flow field, which cannot be predicted with the k-ε models. The extent of deviations between the measurements and computations was quantified.
This paper deals with the singular stress field at the adhesive dissimilar joint, and discusses the effect of material combination and adhesive thickness on the intensity of the singular stress when bonded strip is subjected to tension. A useful method to calculate the intensity of singular stress at the adhesive dissimilar joint is presented with focusing on the stresses at the edge calculated by finite element method. The intensities of singular stress are indicated in charts with varying adhesive thickness t under arbitrary material combinations for adhesive and adherents, and it is found that the intensity of singular stress increases with increasing the adhesive thickness t until t W = , when W is the width of adhesive. The intensity of singular stresses are also charted under arbitrary material combinations which are presented by Dunders' parameters α , β when / 0.001 t W = and / 0.1 t W = , and it is found that for a fixed value β the intensity of singular stress increases with increasing α when α is small while it decreases with increasing α when α is large.
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