The active contour/snake model is one of the most successful variational models in image segmentation. It consists of evolving a contour in images toward the boundaries of objects. Its success is based on strong mathematical properties and efficient numerical schemes based on the level set method. The only drawback of this model is the existence of local minima in the active contour energy, which makes the initial guess critical to get satisfactory results. In this paper, we propose to solve this problem by determining a global minimum of the active contour model. Our approach is based on the unification of image segmentation and image denoising tasks into a global minimization framework. More precisely, we propose to unify three well-known image variational models, namely the snake model, the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi denoising model and the Mumford-Shah segmentation model. We will establish theorems with proofs to determine the existence of a global minimum of the active contour model. From a numerical point of view, we propose a new practical way to solve the active contour propagation problem toward object boundaries through a dual formulation of the minimization problem. The dual formulation, easy to implement, allows us a fast global minimization of the snake energy. It avoids the usual drawback in the level set approach that consists of initializing the active contour in a distance function and re-initializing it periodically during the evolution, which is time-consuming. We apply our segmentation algorithms on synthetic and real-world images, such as texture images and medical images, to emphasize the performances of our model compared with other segmentation models.
Variational models for image segmentation have many applications, but can be slow to compute. Recently, globally convex segmentation models have been introduced which are very reliable, but contain TV-regularizers, making them difficult to compute. The previously introduced Split Bregman method is a technique for fast minimization of L1 regularized functionals, and has been applied to denoising and compressed sensing problems. By applying the Split Bregman concept to image segmentation problems, we build fast solvers which can out-perform more conventional schemes, such as duality based methods and graph-cuts. The convex segmentation schemes also substantially outperform conventional level set methods, such as the Chan-Vese level set-based segmentation algorithm. We also consider the related problem of surface reconstruction from unorganized data points, which is used for constructing level set representations in 3 dimensions. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of "Split Bregman" techniques for solving these problems, and to compare this scheme with more conventional methods.
The rise of graph-structured data such as social networks, regulatory networks, citation graphs, and functional brain networks, in combination with resounding success of deep learning in various applications, has brought the interest in generalizing deep learning models to non-Euclidean domains. In this paper, we introduce a new spectral domain convolutional architecture for deep learning on graphs. The core ingredient of our model is a new class of parametric rational complex functions (Cayley polynomials) allowing to efficiently compute spectral filters on graphs that specialize on frequency bands of interest. Our model generates rich spectral filters that are localized in space, scales linearly with the size of the input data for sparsely-connected graphs, and can handle different constructions of Laplacian operators. Extensive experimental results show the superior performance of our approach, in comparison to other spectral domain convolutional architectures, on spectral image classification, community detection, vertex classification and matrix completion tasks. * The first two authors have contributed equally and are listed alphabetically. Ron Levie is with the Institute
This paper introduces Graph Convolutional Recurrent Network (GCRN), a deep learning model able to predict structured sequences of data. Precisely, GCRN is a generalization of classical recurrent neural networks (RNN) to data structured by an arbitrary graph. Such structured sequences can represent series of frames in videos, spatio-temporal measurements on a network of sensors, or random walks on a vocabulary graph for natural language modeling. The proposed model combines convolutional neural networks (CNN) on graphs to identify spatial structures and RNN to find dynamic patterns. We study two possible architectures of GCRN, and apply the models to two practical problems: predicting moving MNIST data, and modeling natural language with the Penn Treebank dataset. Experiments show that exploiting simultaneously graph spatial and dynamic information about data can improve both precision and learning speed. arXiv:1612.07659v1 [stat.ML] 22 Dec 2016 Under review as a conference paper at ICLR 2017 Figure 1: Illustration of the proposed GCRN model for spatio-temporal prediction of graph-structured data. The technique combines at the same time CNN on graphs and RNN. RNN can be easily exchanged with LSTM or GRU networks.
We propose and analyze a nonparametric regionbased active contour model for segmenting cluttered scenes. The proposed model is unsupervised and assumes pixel intensity is independently identically distributed. Our proposed energy functional consists of a geometric regularization term that penalizes the length of the partition boundaries and a region-based image term that uses histograms of pixel intensity to distinguish different regions. More specifically, the region data encourages segmentation so that local histograms within each region are approximately homogeneous. An advantage of using local histograms in the data term is that histogram differentiation is not required to solve the energy minimization problem. We use Wasserstein distance with exponent 1 to determine the dissimilarity between two histograms. The Wasserstein distance is a metric and is able to faithfully measure the distance between two histograms, compared to many pointwise distances. Moreover, it is insensitive to oscillations, and therefore our model is robust to noise. A fast global minimization method based on is employed to solve the proposed model. The advantages of using this method are two-fold. First, the computational time is less than that of the method by gradient descent of the associated Euler-Lagrange equation (Chan et al. in Proc. of SSVM, pp. 697-708, 2007). Second, it is able to find a global minimizer. Finally, we propose a variant of our model that is able to properly segment a cluttered scene with local illumination changes.
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