Summary. -Piglet diarrhea epidemics result in major economic losses for the swine industry. Four viruses are closely linked to porcine diarrhea: porcine kobuvirus (PKV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PRoV). We have conducted an epidemiology study to determine the frequency of infection and co-infection with these viruses in China, and characterized the genetic variation of the isolated PEDV and PKV strains. Stool and intestinal samples (n = 314) were collected from piglets with diarrhea in China from years 2012 to 2014. RT-PCR was used to detect PKV, PEDV, TGEV, and PRoV. Phylogenetic relationships between reference strains and the isolated PEDV and PKV strains were determined based on the M and 3D gene sequence. Th e rates of infection with PKV, PEDV, TGEV and PRoV were 29.9%, 24.2%, 1.91%, and 0.31%, respectively. Co-infections with PKV and the other three viruses were very common. Co-infection of PKV and PEDV was detected in 15.0% (47/314) of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the PKV 3D gene indicated that there were some phylogenetic diff erences in the PKV strains across regions within China. However, according to the PEDV M gene, strains clustered into three groups and the primary group was distinct from the vaccine strain CV777. Th is study provides insights in to the prevalence of diarrhea viruses and their prevention and control in China.Keywords: porcine diarrhea viruses; co-infection; porcine kobuvirus; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; porcine gastroenteritis; porcine rotavirus * Corresponding authors: E-mail: email@example.com, aijian@ yzu.edu.cn; phone: +8613815809571.# Th ese authors contributed equally to this work. Abbreviations: PKV = porcine kobuvirus; PEDV = porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; TGEV = porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus; ProV = porcine rotavirus
ABSTRACT. A variety of aetiologies may cause third nerve palsy (TNP), and some manifestations may herald neurological emergencies. This article describes and illustrates various diseases that lead to TNP. The two major functions of the third nerve are oculomotor and pupillomotor. The evaluation of patients with third nerve palsy (TNP) requires an understanding of the normal anatomy of the third nerve. The primary imaging modality used for patients with TNP is MRI because of its high soft-tissue contrast and ability to show the entire course of the third nerve. The MRI sequences used, besides T 1 weighted and T 2 weighted images, should include diffusion-weighted images, MR angiography, thin-slice (,1mm) steady-state free precession (SSFP) and contrast-enhanced spoiled gradientrecalled echo (SGRE) sequences. The current SSFP [e.g. fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) for a GE scanner; constructive interference steady state (CISS) for a Siemens scanner] and SGRE sequences [e.g. spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) for a GE scanner; fast low-angle shot (FLASH) for a Siemens scanner] provide submillimetric spatial resolution and are capable of depicting the cisternal segments of all 12 cranial nerves and the relationship of the nerves to pathological processes. They also allow reconstruction in multiplanar images that highlight the course of each cranial nerve (Figure 1). CT scanning is limited in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) to exclude cerebral aneurysm and in patients head trauma with suspected skull fracture. Digital subtraction angiography is reserved for cases in which cerebral aneurysm or carotid-cavernous sinus fistula (CCF) is suspected and there is no clue on CT angiography or MR angiography. In this article, we discuss the anatomy and lesions in the
ABSTRACT. Conventional hybridization and selection techniques have aided the development of new ornamental crop cultivars. However, little information is available on the genetic divergence of bromeliad hybrids. In the present study, we investigated the genetic variability in interspecific hybrids of Aechmea gomosepala and A. recurvata var. recurvata using inflorescence characteristics and sequencerelated amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The morphological analysis showed that the putative hybrids were intermediate between both parental species with respect to inflorescence characteristics. The 16 SRAP primer combinations yield 265 bands, among which 154 (57.72%) were polymorphic. The genetic similarity was an average of 0.59 and ranged from 0.21 to 0.87, indicating moderate genetic divergence among the hybrids. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based cluster analysis distinguished the ©FUNPEC-RP www.funpecrp.com.br Genetics and Molecular Research 11 (4): 4169-4178 (2012) F. Zhang et al. 4170 hybrids from their parents with a genetic distance coefficient of 0.54. The cophenetic correlation was 0.93, indicating a good fit between the dendrogram and the original distance matrix. The two-dimensional plot from the principal coordinate analysis showed that the hybrids were intermediately dispersed between both parents, corresponding to the results of the UPGMA cluster and the morphological analysis. These results suggest that SRAP markers could help to identify breeders, characterize F 1 hybrids of bromeliads at an early stage, and expedite genetic improvement of bromeliad cultivars.
The peritumoral stroma is a complex 3D tissue that provides cells with myriad biophysical and biochemical cues. Histologic observations suggest that during metastatic spread of carcinomas, these cues influence transformed epithelial cells, prompting a diversity of migration modes spanning single cell and multicellular phenotypes. Purported consequences of these variations in tumor escape strategies include differential metastatic capability and therapy resistance. Therefore, understanding how cues from the peritumoral stromal microenvironment regulate migration mode phenotypes has prognostic and therapeutic value. Here, we utilize a synthetic stromal mimetic in which matrix fiber density and bulk hydrogel stiffness can be orthogonally tuned to investigate the contribution of these two key matrix attributes on MCF10A migration mode phenotypes, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and invasive potential. We developed an automated computational image analysis framework to extract migratory phenotypes from fluorescent images and determine 3D migration metrics relevant to metastatic spread. Using this analysis, we find that matrix fiber density and bulk hydrogel stiffness distinctly contribute to a variety of MCF10A migration modes including amoeboid, single mesenchymal, multicellular clusters, and collective strands. Taking advantage of the tunability of this material platform, we identify a combination of physical and soluble cues that induces distinct heterogeneous migration modes originating from the same MCF10A spheroid and use this setting to examine a functional consequence of migration mode in apoptotic resistance. We find that cells migrating as part of collective strands are more resistant to staurosporine-induced apoptosis than either disconnected multicellular clusters or individual invading cells. Improved models of the peritumoral stromal microenvironment that help elucidate relationships between matrix attributes and cell migration mode can contribute to ongoing efforts to identify efficacious cancer therapeutics that address migration plasticity-based therapy resistances.
Transmission lines are an important part of the power system and the main artery for the transmission of electrical energy. The safe operation of overhead lines is critical to the safe and stable operation of the entire power grid. This paper takes the main body of the transmission conductor as the main research object. According to the line load calculation theory, risk assessment theory and fuzzy prediction theory, first establish a transmission line risk assessment model that takes into account the influence of temperature changes under weather forecast, and then uses the GA optimized TS-FNN The prediction of the sag of the transmission line has verified the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed theory and method through simulation analysis.
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