Human land use tends to decrease the diversity of native plant species and facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ones. Such changes in land use and plant community composition usually have negative impacts on the assemblages of native herbivorous insects. Highly specialized herbivores are expected to be especially sensitive to land use intensification and the presence of exotic plant species because they are neither capable of consuming alternative plant species of the native flora nor exotic plant species. Therefore, higher levels of land use intensity might reduce the proportion of highly specialized herbivores, which ultimately would lead to changes in the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks. This study investigates the community-wide effects of land use intensity on the degree of specialization of 72 plant-herbivore networks, including effects mediated by the increase in the proportion of exotic plant species. Contrary to our expectation, the net effect of land use intensity on network specialization was positive. However, this positive effect of land use intensity was partially canceled by an opposite effect of the proportion of exotic plant species on network specialization. When we analyzed networks composed exclusively of endophagous herbivores separately from those composed exclusively of exophagous herbivores, we found that only endophages showed a consistent change in network specialization at higher land use levels. Altogether, these results indicate that land use intensity is an important ecological driver of network specialization, by way of reducing the local host range of herbivore guilds with highly specialized feeding habits. However, because the effect of land use intensity is offset by an opposite effect owing to the proportion of exotic host species, the net effect of land use in a given herbivore assemblage will likely depend on the extent of the replacement of native host species with exotic ones.
Recebido em 12/06/2008. Aceito em 5/11/2009 RESUMO -(Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas em uma área de fl oresta estacional semidecídua em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil). Em uma área de fl oresta estacional semidecídua do Campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás foram coletados 34 tipos de galhas entomógenas, durante o período de . As galhas ocorreram em 20 espécies de plantas de 12 famílias, sendo Leguminosae (9), Styracaceae (6) e Ulmaceae (4) as que apresentaram o maior número de morfotipos de galhas. Galhas foliares e caulinares foram as mais comuns. Em relação à morfologia foram coletadas galhas globóides, discóides, elipsóides, cilíndricas e coniformes. A coloração variou entre o verde, amarela, marrom e vermelha. As galhas estavam agrupadas ou isoladas e eram glabras ou pilosas. Os Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) foram os principais cecidógenos e os parasitóides encontrados pertenciam às famílias Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera). Este é o primeiro relato de galhas em quatro espécies de plantas hospedeiras para a região Neotropical. Palavras-chave: Cecidomyiidae, Cerrado, insetos galhadores, Leguminosae, plantas hospedeiras ABSTRACTS -(Occurrence and characterization of entomogenous galls in a seasonal semideciduous forest area in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil). In an area of seasonal semideciduous forest situated on Campus Samambaia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás in Goiânia, Goiás 34 types of insect galls were collected during the period . The galls occurred in 20 species of plants from 12 families, with Leguminosae (9), Styracaceae (6) and Ulmaceae (4) having the greatest number of gall morphotypes. Leaf and stem galls were the most widespread. Concerning gall morphology, the following were collected: globoid, discoidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and conical. The colour varied from green to yellow, brown and red. The galls were isolated or grouped and glabrous or pilose. The principal inducers were Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) and the parasitoids found were of the families Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera). This is the fi rst report of galls in four species of host plants for the Neotropical region.
Robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) are distributed widely in the Neotropics and may be able to survive in modified landscapes because of their omnivorous, opportunistic diet. The poorly known and endangered crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) is endemic to the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo states, Brazil. We collected data on diet and home range for a crested capuchin group with access to forest and cultivated areas. We hypothesized that with access to cultivated exotic fruit, capuchins would use cultivated areas more for feeding during the season of fruit scarcity in the surrounding forest and have a small home range size because of higher fruit availability. Both the forest and the cultivated areas peaked in fruit availability in the wet season, with a low proportion of trees producing fruit in the dry season; cultivated areas had a higher proportion of trees in fruit compared to the forest throughout the study. While monkeys consumed exotic fruits like jackfruit and oil palm, we recorded more samples of them eating forest fruits than exotic fruits in all but 1 month, and they consumed a more diverse array of forest fruits (56 species) but only six exotic species. Home range size was relatively small compared with other studies: 120.5 ha across the year (wet season 102 ha, dry season 111.5 ha). Natural and human‐intensified fruit sources in a protected area without hunting may have allowed monkeys to maintain a smaller home range size. The group composition changed during the study; this also likely influenced home range use. Studies focused on robust capuchin groups that utilize agricultural or cultivated foods may underestimate home range needs for groups without access to human‐intensified food sources. Studying crested capuchin ecology in additional locations will be important for establishing a sound species conservation program.
Abstract:In this study we recorded the occurrence of insect galls, inductors and parasitoids in plants of several physiognomies of Brazilian Cerrado in the Serra dos Pireneus, Goiás State, Brazil. We found 62 morphotypes of gall on 28 botanical families, comprising 44 genera and 51 species. The plant families that showed the greatest richness of galls were Fabaceae, with eight morphotypes, and Styracaceae with six. Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae) was the host plant species with the greatest gall richness, featuring five morphotypes. Most of galls occurred on the leaves (82.6%), 45.1% in vegetation of typical savanna and 35.4% in rocky savanna. Dipteran, Hemipteran and Lepidopteran galls were found, being 50.9% of them induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Several parasitoids were obtained, Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) was the most representative group (occurring in approximately 40% of the galls). Nine species of plants were recorded for the first time in the Neotropical as host of gallers. Resumo: Neste estudo, registramos a ocorrência de galhas, galhadores e parasitóides em plantas de várias fitofisionomias de Cerrado na Serra dos Pireneus, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foram encontrados 62 morfotipos de galhas em 28 famílias botânicas, compreendendo 44 gêneros e 51 espécies. As famílias botânicas que apresentaram maior riqueza de galhas foram Fabaceae, com oito morfotipos e Styracaceae com seis. Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae) foi a espécie de planta hospedeira mais rica em galhas, apresentando cinco morfotipos. A maioria das galhas ocorreu nas folhas (82,6%) e em fitofisionomias de cerrado típico (45,1%) e cerrado rupestre (35,4%). Galhas de Diptera, Hemiptera e Lepidoptera foram encontradas, sendo 50,9% induzidas por Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Vários parasitóides obtidos, dentre eles, Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) foram foi o grupo mais representativo (ocorrendo em aproximadamente 40% das galhas). Nove espécies de plantas são registradas pela primeira vez na região Neotropical como hospedeiras de galhadores. Palavras-chaves: Cecidomyiidae, insetos galhadores, plantas hospedeiras, parasitóides.
How to cite: ARAÚJO WS, FeRNANDeS gW AND SANTOS JC. 2019. An overview of inventories of gallinducing insects in Brazil: looking for patterns and identifying knowledge gaps. An Acad Bras Cienc 91: e20180162.
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