Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonosis of global distribution and is one of the causes of hemorrhagic fevers in the tropics. We sought to determine seroprevalence in humans and animals and isolate Leptospira interrogans sensu lato in domestic animals, rodents, and water sources. The study was conducted in a tropical area of the middle Sinú in Cordoba, Colombia. In a prospective descriptive study, we collected blood and urine from pigs and dogs, sera from rural human workers, sera and kidney macerates of rodents, and water samples from environmental sources. We used microagglutination to screen for antibodies to 13 serovars. Strains were cultured on the Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris medium and confirmed by PCR amplifying lipL32 gene. Seroprevalence was 55.9% in pigs, 35.2% in dogs, and 75.8% in humans; no antibody was detected, and no Leptospira were isolated from kidney macerates of rodents. Seven L. interrogans sensu lato strains were isolated: three from pigs, two from dogs, and two from water. High seroprevalence in pigs, dogs, and humans, concomitant to isolation of strains, demonstrates that in Cordoba, transmission exists among animals, the environment, and humans, which warrants the implementation of public health intervention measures to reduce the epidemiological impact of leptospirosis in the region.
We report a case of typhoid fever in a traveler returning to Spain from Guatemala that was caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi which produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). This finding demonstrates the presence of ESBL-producing S. enterica ser. Typhi strains in the Americas. Enhanced surveillance is necessary to prevent further spread.
Objective To describe and analyze the clinical and epidemiological status in 28 confirmed cases of human leptospirosis at the main public hospital of Cordoba. Methods Between 2012 and 2013, we conducted an active surveillance at the main hospital of Cordoba to establish the etiologic diagnosis of the undifferentiated tropical febrile illness (UTFI) cases. UTFI is defined as a fever without an infection focus in the initial physical examination or in basic laboratory tests. Patients in acute phase were accompanied by prodromal symptoms, including myalgia, arthralgia, headache, asthenia, chills, icterus, dyspnea, abdominal pain, rash, and nausea. Samples were collected on admission and at discharge. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected for each patient. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed. Results The 28 leptospirosis cases presented the following gender distribution: male (n=24) and female (n=4). The duration of hospitalization was 10.39 days. The main symptoms and clinical manifestations were fever, headache and nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, all of which occurred in up to 60% of patients. Of the 28 cases studied, 4 were fatal. The most frequent infecting serogroups were Ballum and Canicola. Conclusion Leptospirosis is a common cause of undifferentiated tropical febrile illness in Colombia; it is important to establish ongoing and accurate surveillance for acute febrile illness to facilitate the detection of cases of leptospirosis.
Background and Aim: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus that causes encephalitis with a high impact on public health in Latin America. However, only in Guatemala, Trinidad and Tobago, and Mexico have found antibodies in VEEV in bats, using immunohistochemistry, the sensitivity and specificity are improved; thus, it is better for demonstrating natural infection in bats as potential hosts. This study aimed to determine the presence of VEEV in tissues of frugivorous bats.
Materials and Methods: A prospective descriptive cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sampling was carried out in 12 localities of Córdoba and Sucre area of the Colombian Caribbean. Two hundred and eighty-six bats were captured using fog nets, and the specimens according to taxonomic keys were classified. According to the Ethics Committee of the University of Córdoba, the bats were treated with analgesics and anesthetics. Blood samples were taken and then euthanized to obtain tissues and organs which were preserved in liquid N2 at –196°C. A portion of each organ was fixed in 10% buffered formalin for the detection of antigens by immunohistochemistry. Several pathological anatomy analyses were performed to determine the histological characteristics of tissue lesions of frugivorous bats naturally infected with the VEEV.
Results: Of the 286 bats captured, 23 species were identified. In samples of the brain, spleen, and lung of two frugivorous bats (2/286=0.70%) Artibeus planirostris and Sturnira lilium, the presence of VEEV was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.
Conclusion: A fragment of the nsP4 non-structural protein gene corresponding to the alphavirus was amplified. Two samples were positive (2/286=0.70%) in frugivorous bats; A. planirostris (code GenBank: MG820274) and S. lilium (code GenBank: MG820275). The present study showed the first molecular evidence and cellular evidence (histopathology and immunohistochemistry) of natural VEEV infection in frugivorous bats in Colombia; these bats could be a host of this zoonosis.
Natural infection of dengue virus (DENV) in bats is an unexplored field in Colombia. To detect the presence of DENV in bats, a descriptive prospective study using a nonprobabilistic sampling was carried out; 286 bats in 12 sites were caught. Sample tissues of different animals were obtained; the RNA was obtained from tissues and a nested-RT-PCR was carried out and detected amplicons of 143 fragment of the NS5 gene were sequenced by the Sanger method. In nonhematophagous bats Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor captured in Ayapel and San Carlos (Córdoba), respectively, an amplicon corresponding to NS5 was detected. The amplicons showed a high similarity with serotype-2 dengue virus (DENV-2). This is the first evidence of the DENV-2 genome in bats in from the Colombian Caribbean.
BackgroundBats are an important ecological group within ecosystems. The rabies virus is a Lyssavirus, and haematophagous bats are the principal reservoir; however, the virus has also been detected in non-haematophagous bats. The objective was to determine the rabies virus in non-haematophagous bats in the Colombian Caribbean region.MethodsIn 2017, a cross-sectional study was carried out with a base-risk sampling in twelve geographic zones of the Colombian Caribbean area that included the main ecosystems of two departments. 286 bats were captured, which were euthanized with a pharmacological treatment following the ethical protocols of animal experimentation. The taxonomic identification was done with dichotomous keys. The necropsy was carried out at the capture site, and brain samples were kept in liquid nitrogen. The extraction of the RNA was carried out from the frozen brains with Trizol™; a fragment of 914 bp of the glycoprotein G of the rabies virus was amplified with RT-PCR. The amplicons were sequenced with the Sanger method.ResultsTwenty-three genera of bats were identified, and, in two frugivorous, Artibeus lituratus and Artibeus planirostris, amplicons were obtained and sequenced as the rabies virus.ConclusionsThis is the first evidence of natural infection of the rabies virus in frugivorous bats in the Colombian Caribbean area; this result is important for the surveillance and control of rabies.
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