Strawberry is affected by several pests and diseases. Neopamera bilobata is an emerging pest that has been reported by several strawberry growers, usually associated with catfacing symptoms in fruits. We evaluated intercropping garlic or Chinese chives on N. bilobata populations on strawberry crops grown in high tunnels in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated N. bilobata populations on strawberry intercropping with garlic plants (three densities: 8, 16, 24 GP - garlic plant per plot) on the bags by taking 12 samples from December 2015 to April 2017. N. bilobata populations on strawberry were also assessed when Chinese chives were grown under the suspended wooden structures in which strawberry plants are grown ('undercropping') (14 samples), in two high tunnels, from November 2016 to March 2017. The number of nymphs and adults on 14 randomly selected fruits per plot were assessed. During the garlic intercropping experiment, the treatments of three densities of garlic reduced N. bilobata populations; however, the 24 GP treatment caused a greater reduction than the 8 GP treatment. Garlic densities reduced N. bilobata populations by 35, 50, and 64% for the 8, 16, and 24 GP treatments, respectively. Chinese chives cultivated under the structures reduced N. bilobata populations by 47%. The results suggest that intercropping garlic or undercropping Chinese chives are suitable tools to be tested in integrated pest management in strawberry crops.
The objective was to evaluate aromatic plants’ effects on the acceptance, preference, egg load, and life span of females of the twospotted spider mite (TSSM) in laboratory experiments and TSSM population under aromatic plants’ intercropping in greenhouse experiments. The pseudofruits production was also evaluated. For the laboratory, basil’s, Chinese chives’, chives’, and garlic’s influence on TSSM were tested on strawberry leaves. Four laboratory experiments were conducted: (1) Multiple choice test; (2) T-shaped arena test; (3) host–plant acceptance on aromatic plant or strawberry leaves; and (4) performance of TSSMs on strawberry leaves under aromatic plant influence. For the greenhouse experiments, assessments of the TSSM populations were realized by observing TSSM with a 10× magnifying glass on strawberry leaves in a monocrop or intercropped with Chinese chives, chives, garlic, or onion. Pseudofruit production was evaluated. Our results show that strawberry leaves were strongly preferred by TSSM. The T-shaped arena test revealed that all aromatic plants repel the TSSM. The test with the performance of TSSM females revealed that aromatic plants affected the mite’s biological parameters. Chinese chives reduced the number of eggs laid per day by 33.22%, whereas garlic reduced the number by 17.30% and chives reduced it by 12.46%. The total number of eggs was reduced by 34.79% with Chinese chives and 25.65% with garlic. Greenhouse experiments showed that chives reduced TSSM populations on two cycles and Chinese chives and garlic reduced TSSM populations on the first cycle only. With our findings, we suggest that Chinese chives, chives, and garlic are the primary candidates for intercropping use against TSSM. Chinese chives and garlic reduced the total number of eggs, but only garlic reduced female mite longevity. However, none of the intercropping plants improved strawberry pseudofruit production.
Abstract. The twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the most important pests on greenhouses/high tunnels worldwide. We evaluated effects of Chinese chive grown under the wooden structure which supports the bags used of strawberry grown, in two high tunnels from November 2016 to January 2017. TSSM mobile forms and number of eggs were counted on strawberry leaves. Five plants were randomly chosen on each plot. TSSM populations on strawberry leaves were assessed with magnifying glass (10 ×). Reductions were observed on three of eight assessments on TSSM mobile forms. On one date was observed reductions on mean number of TSSM eggs. Cumulate mite days overall data of TSSM mobile forms from two high tunnels reveals a reduction with intercrop. On the other hand, number of eggs was not altered. Results suggest that Chinese chive intercropped can reduce TSSM populations on strawberry high tunnels.
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