Several methods for calculating indices of biological integrity (IBIs) have been developed for different ecogeographic regions of the world. All of them calculate IBI scores by comparing against reference sites or historical data on fish assemblage composition. Because of intensive agriculture and urbanization in our study area, we located no reference sites, and historical information about fish assemblage composition did not exist. Instead, we developed hypothetical reference scores based on seasonal electrofishing surveys at six study sites in adjacent but geomorphologically different watersheds. Our IBI included 10 metrics that varied with degree of degradation. We found that Shannon-Wiener indices varied significantly between seasons, indicating significant changes in species composition. Therefore, we calculated seasonal IBI scores also, but these did not significantly differ from each stream's general IBI score, which was calculated on the basis of four samples per site. General stream IBI scores reflected differing levels of anthropogenic disturbance.
The effects of an increasing downriver pollution gradient on the reproductive system of Astyanax fasciatus were investigated in the Rio dos Sinos, RS. The comparison of mean oocyte diameters, gonadal indices and gonado-somatic relationships of specimens captured in polluted areas with individuals from unpolluted reference sites revealed a significant decrease of these parameters with increasing water pollution. High loads of organic and industrial sewage are considered responsible for these effects. Condition factors showed an inverse relationship, and increased significantly in down-river polluted areas. The declining gonadal indices showed that energy was allocated to somatic growth. The results of the study recommend the use of A. fasciatus in biomonitoring essays.
This study investigated the fish fauna in the subtropical Sinos River, considering species addition and replacement and the occurrence of indicator species along a longitudinal gradient. Patterns in fish assemblage ordination evaluated by correspondence analysis reflected the headwater and lowland river reaches. Uppermost sampling stations were characterized by species with restricted occurrence and medium abundance, whereas in the lowland most species were captured only once during the surveyed period and in low abundance. Species addition prevailed between the headwater sampling stations and both addition and replacement occurred between the lowland sampling stations. Nine species were characteristic for the headwater reach and 14 species for the lowland reach.
the migration of six adult bream was examined by long-term ultrasonic tagging experiments. Two different migration types were observed: diurnal rhythmical migrations between the littoral and pelagic zones. and sporadic locomotions such as spontaneous excursions of several kilometers distance. At night, during their sojourn in the shallow littoral zone, bream feed intensively on benthic organisms; during their stay in the pelagic areas they presumably feed on zooplankton. Sporadic changes of place enable the bream to feed on locally abundant food resources. During the spawning season, migration contributes to successful spawning.
adult lake dwelling brown trout (Sulmo /ru//u L.) were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked almost continuously for up to 13 days. Two behaviour types were observed: (a) random movement in locally restricted areas and (b) excursions of up to 40 km distance. Swimming activity during the day was significantly higher than at night in most experiments. In summer swimming depth ranged between 8 and 16 m, and in winter between 0 and 3 m. The preferred water temperature was about 14" C in the thermally stratified waterbody. During the experiments mean swimming speed ranged between 0.3 km h ' (0.1 bodylengths s I) and 0.9 km h-l(O.6 bodylengths s I).
Recent changes in Brazilian legislation reduced the width of riparian forest buffer needed to be preserved in private properties from 30 to 15 m or less. The consequences of these modifications can be dramatic, mainly because riparian buffer width is an important parameter for riparian forest structure and functioning. Our study assessed whether (1) macroinvertebrate family richness and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) family richness decrease with reduced riparian buffer width; (2) taxonomic composition and functional feeding group (FFG) composition of macroinvertebrates vary with a reduced riparian buffer width; and (3) reduced riparian buffer width similarly influence the macroinvertebrate community in different stream substrates. We selected three fragments with different riparian buffer widths (>40, <30, and <15 m) in three streams (fourth and fifth orders) in the Sinos River watershed, southern Brazil. Our results show that on all substrate types, reducing the width of the riparian buffer altered neither the macroinvertebrate richness nor EPT richness. However, EPT richness was greater in the substrates stone and gravel than leaf litter, independent of riparian buffer width. There was a significant difference in macroinvertebrate composition among riparian buffer widths. The macroinvertebrate composition and FFG differed among substrates, independent of riparian buffer width. This study showed that riparian buffer widths <15 m altered the macroinvertebrate community. A width greater than 15 m is necessary to maintain the composition and trophic conditions of macroinvertebrate families similar to those found in reference states of conservation.
The black bass, Micropterus salmoides, was introduced to Brazil from North America in 1922. Since then the species has been reared in aquaculture facilities intended to stock reservoirs as additions to native stocks available for angling. At present no scientific information on the biology of black bass in Brazilian waters is available. Since black bass dispersion may cause severe impacts on native Brazilian fish fauna, information on the basic biological parameters of this species is necessary. The objective of the present study is to provide information on the growth, age structure, and mortality of the species in a small reservoir in southern Brazil, where the species reproduces regularly. Based on scale readings, the von Bertalanffy growth curve was calculated and compared to the lengthfrequency distribution of the population. Both methods showed similar results. between the first and the second cohort, to 0.8 year -1 between the second and third. The results show that black bass in Brazil grows faster than in its area of origin, but longevity is shorter and body shape, stouter. The cause of high mortality at a relatively early age may be connected with the loss of genetic diversity due to inbreeding of the Brazilian stocks, which originated from few introduced individuals a long time ago. The fact that black bass reproduces in reservoirs and grows rapidly may be considered a threat to conserving fish diversity in Brazilian ecosystems.Key words: Micropterus salmoides, growth, mortality. RESUMOCrescimento e mortalidade do black bass, Micropterus salmoides, (Pisces, Centrachidae; Lacepède, 1802) num reservatório no sul do Brasil O black bass, Micropterus salmoides, proveniente da América do Norte, foi introduzido no Brasil em 1922. A partir dessa data, a espécie foi criada na piscicultura brasileira para fins de soltura em açudes e reservatórios com o objetivo de sustentar a pesca amadora. Atualmente não há informações sobre a biologia da espécie em águas brasileiras. Como a dispersão da espécie em águas naturais pode causar impactos imprevisíveis, é necessário levantar dados sobre parâmetros básicos de sua biologia. O objetivo do presente trabalho é investigar o crescimento, a estrutura etária e a mortalidade da espécie num pequeno reservatório no sul do Brasil, onde ela se reproduz todos os anos. Por meio da leitura de escamas foi calculada a curva de crescimento von Bertalanffy e comparada à distribuição do comprimento. Ambos os métodos chegaram a resultados similares. O comprimento máximo foi de aproximadamente 44 cm. No primeiro ano de vida, o comprimento médio foi de 26,1 cm (d.p. = 13,88); no segundo, 37,3 cm (d.p. = 12,52); e no terceiro, 41,5 cm (d.p. = 9,92 formance de crescimento foi ø' = 3,28 cm ano -1 . A mortalidade Z aumentou aproximadamente quatro vezes, de 0,16 anos -1 entre a primeira e a segunda coorte para 0,8 anos -1 entre a segunda e a terceira coorte. Os resultados mostram que o black bass cresce mais rapidamente no Brasil e tende a ser mais enxuto que em sua área de origem, mas ...
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