Karyotype and chromosomal characteristics from 3 allopatric populations of Hoplias malabaricus, cytogenetically the most studied Erythrinidae taxon, were investigated using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA3 banding) as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and 5SHindIII satellite DNA sites. The isolation, cloning and characterization of an 18S rDNA probe from H. malabaricus genome were also performed for the first time in order to develop a more specific probe. The 3 populations, named PR, CR, and DR, showed identical karyotypes, with 2n = 42 chromosomes composed of 11 m pairs and 10 sm pairs, without heteromorphic sex chromosomes, which characterize the populations as belonging to karyomorph A. In all populations C-positive heterochromatin was situated in the centromeric/pericentromeric regions of the chromosomes, as well as in the telomeric region of several pairs. A conspicuous proximal heterochromatic block on the long arm of pair No. 16 was the only GC-rich segment in the karyotypes. 5SHindIII satellite DNA was always mapped in the centromeric region of several chromosomes. The 18S rDNA sites were situated on the telomeric or centromeric regions, whereas the 5S rDNA showed an interstitial or proximal location in some pairs. Several chromosomes bearing these repetitive DNA sequences were shared by the 3 populations, alongside with some exclusive chromosomal markers. In this sense, population CR was the most differentiated one, including a syntenic condition for the 18S and 5S rDNA probes, as confirmed by double FISH. Thus, despite their inclusion in the same major karyotypic group, the distinct populations cannot be considered an absolute evolutionary unit, as evidenced by their inner chromosomal differentiations.
The species Hoplias malabaricus is a predator fish found in nearly all cis-Andean basins. From a cytogenetic point of view, this species comprises, at least, seven differentiated karyomorphs. Several localities have been formerly analyzed in Brazil, however, some regions, such as Bahia State, remain underrepresented. Recently, the Brazilian Environment Ministry classified both Itapicuru and Contas river basins (entirely located within Bahia territory) as priority conservation areas, whose biodiversity status lacks enough information. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to characterize, cytogenetically, populations of H. malabaricus from both basins, by using conventional staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding techniques. All specimens presented a diploid number of 2n = 40 with metacentric/submetacentric chromosomes, without differences between sexes, thereby representing the so-called "karyomorph F". The first metacentric pair presented a remarkably larger size in relation to the other pairs. The NORs were multiple, comprising the terminal region on long arms of two chromosomal pairs in both populations. However, the C-banding pattern was somewhat distinguishable between samples. Although sharing heterochromatic blocks at centromeric region of all chromosomes, the population from Itapicuru River basin appeared to have some more conspicuous blocks than those observed in the population from Contas River basin. The similar karyotype observed in both populations suggests a common geological history between them. The present results represent an advance in the knowledge about the cytogenetic pattern of H. malabaricus populations from poorly studied basins.A espécie Hoplias malabaricus é um predador que ocorre em praticamente todas as bacias cis-andinas. Sob o ponto de vista citogenético, ela compreende, pelo menos, sete cariomorfos diferenciáveis. Várias localidades já foram previamente analisadas no Brasil, porém, algumas regiões, como o Estado da Bahia, permanecem pouco amostradas. Recentemente, o Ministério de Meio Ambiente classificou as bacias do rio Itapicuru e Contas (inteiramente localizadas na Bahia), como áreas prioritárias de conservação, cuja biodiversidade carece de informações suficientes. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar citogeneticamente populações de H. malabaricus nessas bacias, por meio de técnicas de coloração convencional, Ag-RON e bandamento C. Todos os espécimes e populações analisadas apresentaram número diploide 2n = 40 com cromossomos metacêntricos/submetacêntricos, sem diferenças entre os sexos, representando assim o denominado "cariomorfo F". O primeiro par metacêntrico apresentou tamanho notavelmente maior que os demais pares. As RONs foram múltiplas, ocupando a região terminal do braço longo de dois pares cromossômicos em ambas populações. Entretanto, os padrões de heterocromatina foram relativamente diferenciáveis entre as bacias hidrográficas estudadas. Apesar de compartilharem blocos heterocromáticos na região centromérica de todos os cromossomos, a popu...
Chromosomal rearrangements have a relevant role in organismic evolution. However, little is known about the mechanisms that lead different phylogenetic clades to have different chromosomal rearrangement rates. Here, we investigate the causes behind the wide karyotypic diversity exhibited by mammals. In particular, we analyzed the role of metabolic, reproductive, biogeographic and genomic characteristics on the rates of macro- and microstructural karyotypic diversification (rKD) using comparative phylogenetic methods. We found evidence that reproductive characteristics such as larger litter size per year and longevity, by allowing a higher number of meioses in absolute time, favor a higher probability of chromosomal change. Furthermore, families with large geographic distributions but containing species with restricted geographic ranges showed a greater probability of fixation of macrostructural chromosomal changes in different geographic areas. Finally, rKD does not evolve by Brownian motion because the mutation rate depends on the concerted evolution of repetitive sequences. The decisive factors of rKD evolution will be natural selection, genetic drift and meiotic drive that will eventually allow or not the fixation of the rearrangements. Our results indicate that mammalian karyotypic diversity is influenced by historical and adaptive mechanisms where reproductive and genomic factors modulate the rate of chromosomal change.
The cobia, Rachycentron canadum, a species of marine fish, has been increasingly used in aquaculture worldwide. It is the only member of the family Rachycentridae (Perciformes) showing wide geographic distribution and phylogenetic patterns still not fully understood. In this study, the species was cytogenetically analyzed by different methodologies, including Ag-NOR and chromomycin A3 (CMA3)/DAPI staining, C-banding, early replication banding (RGB), and in situ fluorescent hybridization with probes for 18S and 5S ribosomal genes and for telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n. The results obtained allow a detailed chromosomal characterization of the Atlantic population. The chromosome diversification found in the karyotype of the cobia is apparently related to pericentric inversions, the main mechanism associated to the karyotypic evolution of Perciformes. The differential heterochromatin replication patterns found were in part associated to functional genes. Despite maintaining conservative chromosomal characteristics in relation to the basal pattern established for Perciformes, some chromosome pairs in the analyzed population exhibit markers that may be important for cytotaxonomic, population, and biodiversity studies as well as for monitoring the species in question.
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