The genus Centropyge is remarkable for species richness, composing a highly specialized fish group amongst members from family Pomacanthidae. However, cytogenetical reports are nearly absent in these animals. New data are provided from karyotypical studies carried out on Centropyge aurantonotus from the Brazilian coast of the Atlantic Ocean and C. ferrugatus from the Philippines Sea of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Both species present 2n = 48 but karyotypes are differentiated by fundamental number. C. aurantonotus has a great number of biarmed chromosomes (4 m + 14 sm + 16 st + 4 a), while C. ferrugatus presents only acrocentric chromosomes. Single nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) are located at interstitial position of an acrocentric pair in C. ferrugatus and on short arms of a subtelocentric pair in C. aurantonotus, as confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probes. Heterochromatin is distributed over NOR and centromeric regions in both species, but additional GC-rich heterochromatic blocks on short arms of up to eight chromosomal pairs can be detected in C. aurantonotus. 5S rDNA segments were located interstitially on two chromosomal pairs in C. ferrugatus and on nine pairs in C. aurantonotus, mostly equivalent to heterochromatic blocks on short arms of biarmed chromosomes. C. ferrugatus can be considered a species in which basal chromosomal features proposed for modern Teleosteans were conserved. The derived karyotype pattern of C. aurantonotus seems to be determined by pericentric inversions and heterochromatin addition which probably determined the notorious dispersion of 5S rRNA (pseudo)genes. It is demonstrated that, even within a group generally characterized by cytogenetical homogeneity as the family Pomacanthidae, diversified karyotypes can be found.
The combination of DNA barcodes and geometric morphometrics is useful to discriminate taxonomically controversial species, providing more precise estimates of biodiversity. Therefore, our goal was to assess the genetic and morphometric diversity in Nematocharax, a controversial monotypic and sexually dimorphic genus of Neotropical fish, based on sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and morphometric analyses in seven populations of N. venustus from coastal rivers in Brazil. The average pairwise intrapopulation divergence in COI ranged from 0 to 2.2%, while the average pairwise interpopulation divergence varied from 0 to 7.5%. The neighbour-joining (NJ) tree resulted in five genetic groups (bootstrap ≥ 97%), which correspond to the five clusters delimited by the BIN System, GMYC, and bPTP, indicating that there might be at least five species (or OTUs) within Nematocharax. Morphometric differences among these genetic lineages were also identified. Apparently, sexual selection, restricted dispersal, and geographic isolation might have acted synergistically to cause the evolutionary split of populations. These data challenge the current view that Nematocharax is a monotypic genus inasmuch as evolutionarily significant units or even distinguished species were identified. Therefore, we recommend that the highly impacted coastal basins in northeastern Brazil should be prioritized in conservation plans.
Few reports are available about the ichthyofauna of typical semi-arid rivers, although the regional diversity has been constantly threatened by human activities, mainly related to impoundment and construction of dams. The goal of the present work was to evaluate using different methods, the population genetic structure of a characin fish, Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, widespread throughout hydrographic basins of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Morphological (meristic and morphometric data), cytogenetic (karyotype and Ag-NOR), and molecular (RAPD and SPAR) analyses were carried out in specimens collected upstream and downstream of Pedra Dam, in the main channel of Contas River (Contas River Basin), and in the Mineiro stream, which belongs to the adjacent Recôncavo Sul basin. Few external differences were detected among populations, where the individuals collected upstream of Pedra Dam were slightly larger than the others. Cytogenetic data also showed a similar karyotypic pattern (2n=50; 6m+28sm+12st+4a; FN= 96) and NORs located on the short arms of up to two chromosome pairs, with numerical inter- and intra-populational variation. Nonetheless, RAPD and SPAR analyses differentiated reliably the three populations, revealing striking differences in the allele frequencies among the localities studied and a significant difference in population structure index (Fst=0.1868, P<0.0001). The differences between populations within a same river were as significant as those between distinct hydrographic basins, indicating that the dam/reservoir represents an effective barrier to gene flow. Additionally, environmental peculiarities from each locality are also believed to influence the genetic patterns detected herein. On the other hand, the similarity between samples from Contas River and Recôncavo Sul basins could be related to a common evolutionary history, since both basins are geographically close to each other. Finally, the present study shows that a multi-approach analysis is particularly useful in identifying the population structure of widely distributed species and to evaluate the impacts of human activities on natural fish populations.
Poucos estudos ictiofaunísticos estão disponíveis em rios típicos do semi-árido, apesar da constante ameaça à diversidade local devido a influências antrópicas, com destaque para o represamento e construção de barragens. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, por meio de diferentes metodologias, a estrutura genética de populações de uma espécie de caracídeo, Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, amplamente distribuída em bacias hidrográficas da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil. Análises morfológicas (dados merísticos e morfométricos), citogenéticas (cariótipo e Ag-RONs) e moleculares (RAPD e SPAR) foram realizadas em espécimes coletados à montante e à jusante da Barragem da Pedra, na calha principal do médio rio de Contas (bacia do Rio de Contas) e no ribeirão Mineiro, pertencente à bacia adjacente do Recôncavo Sul. Poucas diferenças externas foram detectadas entre as populações, sendo os indivíduos...
In the present work, morphometric and cytogenetic analyses were carried out in populations of the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae) from Contas and Recôncavo Sul River basins (State of Bahia, Brazil), providing new data on the genetic structure of this species along the region. Based on morphologic measurements, we observed that populations from the same hydrographic basin were more similar to each other (Contas and Preto do Costa Rivers), and remarkably divergent from Recôncavo Sul (Mineiro Stream), as indicated by clustering analysis. Cytogenetic data revealed a same diploid number for all populations (2n = 48), but distinct karyotype formulae (8M+24SM+12ST+4A, FN = 92 in Contas River, 8M+24SM+10ST+6A, FN = 90 in Preto do Costa River, and 8M+18SM+16ST+6A, FN = 90 in Mineiro Stream). Ag-NORs were identified at telomeres on a subtelocentric chromosome pair, although multiple ribosomal sites have been detected in some specimens from Contas River. These results show that A. fasciatus populations from northeastern river basins are well differentiated and present peculiar cytogenetic features when compared to populations from other regions. Therefore, the apparent chromosomal plasticity of this species, likely to represent a complex of cryptic forms, is corroborated. Finally, we demonstrated that morphological features can be successfully used to support other sources of genetic information.
The species Hoplias malabaricus is a predator fish found in nearly all cis-Andean basins. From a cytogenetic point of view, this species comprises, at least, seven differentiated karyomorphs. Several localities have been formerly analyzed in Brazil, however, some regions, such as Bahia State, remain underrepresented. Recently, the Brazilian Environment Ministry classified both Itapicuru and Contas river basins (entirely located within Bahia territory) as priority conservation areas, whose biodiversity status lacks enough information. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to characterize, cytogenetically, populations of H. malabaricus from both basins, by using conventional staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding techniques. All specimens presented a diploid number of 2n = 40 with metacentric/submetacentric chromosomes, without differences between sexes, thereby representing the so-called "karyomorph F". The first metacentric pair presented a remarkably larger size in relation to the other pairs. The NORs were multiple, comprising the terminal region on long arms of two chromosomal pairs in both populations. However, the C-banding pattern was somewhat distinguishable between samples. Although sharing heterochromatic blocks at centromeric region of all chromosomes, the population from Itapicuru River basin appeared to have some more conspicuous blocks than those observed in the population from Contas River basin. The similar karyotype observed in both populations suggests a common geological history between them. The present results represent an advance in the knowledge about the cytogenetic pattern of H. malabaricus populations from poorly studied basins.A espécie Hoplias malabaricus é um predador que ocorre em praticamente todas as bacias cis-andinas. Sob o ponto de vista citogenético, ela compreende, pelo menos, sete cariomorfos diferenciáveis. Várias localidades já foram previamente analisadas no Brasil, porém, algumas regiões, como o Estado da Bahia, permanecem pouco amostradas. Recentemente, o Ministério de Meio Ambiente classificou as bacias do rio Itapicuru e Contas (inteiramente localizadas na Bahia), como áreas prioritárias de conservação, cuja biodiversidade carece de informações suficientes. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar citogeneticamente populações de H. malabaricus nessas bacias, por meio de técnicas de coloração convencional, Ag-RON e bandamento C. Todos os espécimes e populações analisadas apresentaram número diploide 2n = 40 com cromossomos metacêntricos/submetacêntricos, sem diferenças entre os sexos, representando assim o denominado "cariomorfo F". O primeiro par metacêntrico apresentou tamanho notavelmente maior que os demais pares. As RONs foram múltiplas, ocupando a região terminal do braço longo de dois pares cromossômicos em ambas populações. Entretanto, os padrões de heterocromatina foram relativamente diferenciáveis entre as bacias hidrográficas estudadas. Apesar de compartilharem blocos heterocromáticos na região centromérica de todos os cromossomos, a popu...
Scinax species are still underrepresented in cytogenetic studies, mainly with respect to populations from northeastern and northern Brazil. In this study, we provide new chromosomal information on Scinax boesemani, S. camposseabrai, S. garbei, S. pachycrus, S. trilineatus and S. x-signatus, all belonging to clade S. ruber. They were collected at two locations in the Caatinga biome (northeastern Brazil) and at one in the Amazon (northern Brazil) biomes. Chromosomes were analyzed by conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR staining, and fluorochrome staining. All species shared a modal diploid value of 2n = 24 and fundamental arm number (FN) of 48. Moreover, both chromosomal size and morphology were similar to other species in this Scinaxclade. C-banding revealed centromeric heterochromatin in all species, along with terminal species-specific C-bands in some species. Active nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) were identified at 11q in most species, except for S. boesemani and S. garbei (Ag-NORs at interstitial region of 8q). Differing from most anurans, GC-rich regions were not restricted to NORs, but also coincident with some centromeric and terminal C-bands. These data contribute to the cytotaxonomy of Scinax by providing chromosomal markers and demonstrating the occurrence of microstructural rearrangements and inversions on chromosomal evolution of Scinax.
Three families of New World monkeys, the Pitheciidae, Atelidae, and Cebidae, are currently recognized. The monophyly of the Cebidae is supported unequivocally by the presence of ten unique Alu elements, which are absent from the other two families. In this paper, the five genomic regions containing these Alu elements were sequenced in specimens representing nine capuchin (Cebus, Sapajus) species in order to identify mutations that may help elucidate the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the cebids. The results confirmed the presence of previously described Alu elements in the capuchins. An Alu insertion present in the Cebidae2 genomic region belonging to the AluSc subfamily was amplified and sequenced only in Sapajus. No amplified or unspecific product was obtained for all other species studied here. An AluSc insertion present in the CeSa1 region was found only in Cebus, Sapajus, and Saimiri. Cebidae4 was characterized by two insertions, an AluSz6 shared by all cebids, and a complete SINE (AluSx3) found only in the capuchins (Cebus and Sapajus). The genomic region Cebidae5 revealed two insertion events, one of the AluSx subfamily, which was shared by all cebids, and another (AluSc8), that was unique to Cebus, offering a straightforward criterion for the differentiation of the two genera, Cebus and Sapajus. The Cebidae6 region showed four distinct insertion events: a 52-bp simple repeat ((TATG) n), two very ancient repeats (MIRc) and a TcMar-Tigger shared by all New World monkeys studied so far, and an Alu insertion of the AluSx subfamily present exclusively in the cebids. The phylogenetic tree confirmed the division of the capuchins into two genera, Cebus and Sapajus, and suggested the southern species Sapajus nigritus robustus and S. cay as the earliest and second earliest offshoots in this genus, respectively. This supports a southern origin for the Sapajus radiation.
Scinax Wagler, 1830 is a species-rich genus of amphibians with relatively few detailed chromosomal reports. In this work, cytogenetic analyses of Scinax auratus (Wied-Neuwied, 1821) and Scinax eurydice (Bokermann, 1968) were carried out based on conventional (Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding) and cytomolecular (base-specific fluorochrome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization – FISH of ribosomal probes) techniques. Both species shared the same karyotype, location of active nucleolar organizer regions on pair 11 and GC-rich heterochromatin, as reported for most species in Scinax ruber clade. Interpopulation chromosomal variation was observed in Scinax eurydice, indicating the occurrence of cryptic species. The mapping of 18S ribosomal genes by FISH is reported for the first time in both species.
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