Studies that organize lists of species are essential and act as the starting point for future discussions on the ecology of fish in environments that are poorly studied. The present paper describes the fish assemblage of the hydrographic basin of Chasqueiro Stream, an important component of the Mirim Lagoon system. Fish were collected during one year period between August/2012 and July/2013 in six sites, comprising three biotopes: upstream, reservoir and downstream. A total of 22,853 specimens were collected, and were distributed into 83 species, 20 families, and eight orders. The two species with the largest number of individuals captured were Bryconamericus iheringii with 2,904 (12.71%) and Cheirodon ibicuiensis with 2,868 (12.55%). Characiformes and Siluriformes were the most representative orders in terms of richness and abundance. Bryconamericus iheringi and Cyanocharax alburnus were the species with the highest abundance upstream, while Hyphessobrycon luetkenii and Corydoras paleatus contributed more to the abundance downstream. Cheirodon ibicuhiensis and Heterocheirodon jacuhiensis were the most representative species in the reservoir. This study revealed a rich fauna of fish, which should be preserved for future generations and for the maintenance of local and regional biodiversity. Keywords: Neotropical region, costal plain, Patos-Mirim Lagoon system. CORRÊ A. F., OLIVEIRA, E.F., TUCHTENHAGEN, T., POUEY, J., PIEDRAS, S. Ictiofauna da bacia hidrográfica do arroio Chasqueiro (sistema da Lagoa Mirim, sul do Brasil): gerando subsídios para plano de conservac¸ão e gestão. Biota Neotropica. 15(4): e0006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2015-0006Resumo: Estudos que organizam listas de espécies são essenciais como ponto de partida para futuros debates sobre a ecologia de peixes em ambientes que são pouco estudados. O presente artigo descreve a fauna de bacia hidrográfica do arroio Chasqueiro, componente importante do sistema da Lagoa Mirim. Os peixes foram coletados no período de um ano, entre os meses de agosto de 2012 e julho de 2013, em seis locais amostrais, que compreendem três bió topos, montante, reservató rio e jusante. Um total de 22.853 indivíduos foi coletado, distribuídos em 83 espécies, 20 famílias e oito ordens. As duas espécies com maior abundância foram Bryconamericus iheringii com 2.904 (12,71%) e Cheirodon ibicuiensis com 2.868 (12,55%). Characiformes e Siluriformes foram as ordens mais representativas em termos de riqueza e abundância. Bryconamericus iheringii e Cyanocharax alburnus foram as que apresentaram as maiores abundâncias a montante, Hyphessobrycon luetkenii e Corydoras paleatus contribuíram mais na abundância a jusante, enquanto no reservató rio as mais abundantes foram Cheirodon ibicuhiensis e Heterocheirodon jacuhiensis. Este estudo revelou uma rica ictiofauna na bacia hidrográfica do arroio Chasqueiro, a qual deveria ser preservada para as gerac¸õ es futuras e para a manutenc¸ão da biodiversidade local e regional. Palavras-chave: Região neotropical, planície cost...
The paper describes the trophic ecology of the Loricariichthys anus in a subtropical reservoir. The specimens were collected in the reservoir of the Chasqueiro stream, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The digestive tract of each specimen was removed for the analysis of the contents and defi nition of the diet. The Index of Relative Importance (IRI) was used to estimate which types of prey were most important. The diet of the L. anus population was compared among different water levels, seasons, ontogenetic classes, feeding strategy and fractional trophic level. There was a signifi cant difference between hydrological levels, although no signifi cant variation was found in the composition of the L. anus diet between seasons or among ontogenetic classes. This is probably due to the fact that L. anus is a specialist species, with a diet composed predominantly of fi ne particulate material. At the trophic level, the diet of the species was based on detritus, which refl ects the morphology of its body and digestive tract. Considering these fi ndings, L. anus may be a keystone species in the Chasqueiro reservoir and its conservation, in both natural and artifi cial environments, is necessary for the bottom-up management of this and other Neotropical ecosystems.
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