Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) have been widely explored for biomedical applications ranging from cancer therapy to magnetic resonance imaging due to several promising properties. These include faceted surfaces that mediate potent drug binding and water coordination that have resulted in marked enhancements to the efficacy and safety of drug delivery and imaging. In addition, scalable processing of DNDs yields uniform particles. Furthermore, a broad spectrum of biocompatibility studies has shown that DNDs appear to be well-tolerated. Prior to the clinical translation of DNDs for indications that are addressed via intravenous administration, comprehensive assessment of DND safety in both small and large animal preclinical models is needed. This article reports the results of a DND biocompatibility study in both non-human primates and rats. The rat study was performed as a multiple dose subacute investigation in two cohorts that lasted for 2 weeks and included histological, serum, and urine analysis. The non-human primate study was performed as a dual gender, multiple dose, and long-term investigation in both standard/clinically relevant and elevated dosing cohorts that lasted for 6 months and included comprehensive serum, urine, histological, and body weight analysis. The results from these studies indicate that NDs are well-tolerated at clinically relevant doses. Examination of dose-dependent changes in biomarker levels provides important guidance for the downstream in-human validation of DNDs for clinical drug delivery and imaging.
Context.—Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoma is a provisional and controversial entity with a broad differential diagnosis. Despite being an uncommon lymphoma, it is a frequent diagnostic consideration in cutaneous biopsies with a dense lymphoid infiltrate because it shows overlapping features with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (pseudolymphoma) and a variety of other primary cutaneous and systemic lymphomas. However, proper classification of this process is important for determining patient prognosis and treatment options. Objective.—To review the clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoma and contrast those features with entities in the differential diagnosis. Data Sources.—Applicable literature will be reviewed with emphasis on current controversies and distinguishing characteristics. Conclusions.—Although many consider primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoma to be indistinguishable from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia/pseudolymphoma, it can be differentiated from other primary cutaneous and systemic lymphomas. Patients with solitary lesions of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoma generally have an excellent prognosis. Nevertheless, a subset of patients who have been reported to meet criteria for this lymphoma have followed a more-aggressive course; however, those patients show some differing clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic features.
Cutaneous spindle cell malignancies such as sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), leiomyosarcoma, desmoplastic melanoma (DM) and atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) may be morphologically indistinguishable, yet accurate diagnosis is important for appropriate clinical management. The distinction among these entities relies on immunohistochemical evaluation for epidermal, muscle or melanocytic differentiation. Epidermal differentiation markers include cytokeratins and p63. p63 is expressed as two distinct isoforms, ΔNp63 (p40) and TAp63. p40 positivity is highly specific for pulmonary SCC and head and neck sarcomatoid SCC. We examined the utility of p40 vs. p63 immunostaining in the differentiation of a variety of cutaneous spindle cell malignancies, including sarcomatoid SCC (n = 27), AFX (n = 34) and DM (n = 10). p40 was less sensitive than p63 for detecting sarcomatoid SCC (56% and 81%, respectively). p63 and p40 were comparably specific for sarcomatoid SCC relative to AFX, with only rare weak staining of tumor cells for p63 and/or p40 in a minority of AFX cases, including one case with approximately 10% of cells staining weakly for p40. All cases of DM were negative for p40 and p63. Our results support continued use of p63 for diagnosis of cutaneous sarcomatoid SCC because of greater sensitivity relative to p40.
Accurate subtyping of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) has become clinically important for therapy and prognostication. RCC subtypes are defined by distinct morphologic and immunohistochemical profiles, and in some instances recurrent cytogenetic and molecular properties. However, some tumors exhibit overlapping morphologic and immunophenotypic features, frequent enough to pose diagnostic dilemmas. This report concerns six histologically unusual RCCs that showed tubulopapillary architecture, clear cell phenotype, and non-diagnostic immunohistochemical profiles. Further investigation of these tumors utilized a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray platform (OncoScan®, Affymetrix) that employed molecular inversion probe (MIP) technology to investigate genome-wide chromosomal copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. The six tumors were assayed in parallel with and in comparison to RCC with typical morphologic or immunohistochemical features for a specific subtype (clear cell, clear cell papillary, and microphthalmia transcription factor (MiT) family translocation RCC). Three of the unusual RCCs showed a molecular signature of clear cell RCC and one of papillary RCC. The remaining two showed monosomy of chromosome 8. Those two cases were tested via next-generation sequencing, and no pathogenic variants were detected, including those in the genes VHL, PBRM1, SETD2, KDM5C, or BAP1. The addition of molecular investigations such as reported here as applied to histologically and immunohistochemically unusual RCC may help to define additional subtypes and contribute to the development of targeted therapy for renal cancer.
Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign histiocytic tumor predominantly occurring in children as yellowish papules on the head and trunk. Presentations on the volar surfaces are rare and may cause diagnostic confusion with pyogenic granuloma, eccrine poroma and digital fibrokeratoma. We report two patients with unusual presentations of solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma on the palm or sole. Both had lesions lacking the classic yellowish color and demonstrating a well-defined, peripheral hyperkeratotic rim. Histopathological evaluation revealed prominent orthokeratosis corresponding to the rim. Additional histological features, including dermal histiocytes and Touton giant cells, were consistent with the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Given the unusual locations and colors of the lesions, we conclude that histopathological evaluation is central to diagnosing volar juvenile xanthogranuloma. We additionally suggest that juvenile xanthogranuloma should be included in the differential diagnoses of volar lesions displaying a peripheral hyperkeratotic rim.
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome, of which Cowden syndrome (CS) is the most recognized variant, is characterized by multiple benign and malignant tumors of ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal origins, secondary to germline mutation in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a locally aggressive malignant fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor of the skin, characterized by the t(17:22)(q22:q13) translocation resulting in fusion of the COL1A1 and PDGFB genes. An association between CS and DFSP has not been reported in the literature to date. The authors have encountered a male patient with CS and a history of DFSP that developed adjacent to a sclerotic fibroma on the parietal scalp, both excised at age 7. He presented at age 21 with an enlarging pink nodule at the same site on the parietal scalp. Excision revealed a dermal and subcutaneous storiform spindle cell proliferation with fat entrapment and positive staining for CD34, consistent with DFSP. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed PDGFB gene rearrangement. PTEN expression in the patient's recurrent DFSP was nearly absent when compared with that of sporadic DFSP. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DFSP in a patient with CS. Although the association is likely to be coincidental, the authors revisited the PTEN and the PDGF pathways to speculate any possible interplay of the 2 conditions on a molecular level.
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