We report the case of a 15-year-old male patient presenting frontal headaches with retro-orbital pain accompanied by fever evolving to weakness and pain of the lower limbs, which ascended to upper limbs. A COVID-19 rapid test (IgG and IgM) and nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The blood tests, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analysis and CSF aerobic culture revealed no abnormalities. PCR testing of the CSF was negative for the most prevalent etiologies as well as for SARS-CoV-2. Electroneurography study was compatible with the acute motor axonal neuropathy variant of Guillain–Barré syndrome. No cases involving young patients have been presented to date. Therefore, this is the first reported pediatric case of SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with GBS. Evidence reveals that SARS-CoV-2 infection is not limited to the respiratory tract. Neurotropism could explain this important neurologic manifestation of COVID-19 in children.
A 56-year-old male with human immunodeficiency virus required hospitalization due to the onset of both dyspnea and asthenia. A computed tomography of the chest exam showed the radiological pattern of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary involvement. Based on immunochromatographic analysis, the patient evolved as a reagent for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The individual developed complete hemiparesis with a predominance in the right arm and conduction aphasia. T1weighted magnetic resonance sequence of the brain showed an area of hypointensity with a high intrinsic cortical signal and hyperintensity in the T2-sequence. A Doppler velocimetric examination showed total/critical sub occlusion, suggesting an ischemic stroke.
Respiratory failure (RF) is the main cause of hospital admission in HIV/AIDS patients. This study assessed comorbidities and laboratory parameters in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF (N = 58) in relation to those without RF (N = 36). Tuberculosis showed a huge relative risk and platelet counts were slightly higher in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF. A flow cytometry assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed lower levels in platelets of these patients in relation to the healthy subjects. However, when stimulated with adrenaline, ROS levels increased in platelets and platelet-derived microparticles of HIV/AIDS inpatients, which may increase the risk of RF during HIV and tuberculosis (HIV-TB) coinfection.
SARS-CoV-2 affects mainly the lungs, however, other manifestations, including neurological manifestations, have also been described during the disease. Some of the neurological findings have involved intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage, strokes, and other thrombotic/hemorrhagic conditions. Nevertheless, the gross pathology of hemorrhagic lesions in the central nervous system has not been previously described in Brazilian autopsy cases. This study aimed to describe gross and microscopic central nervous system (CNS) pathology findings from the autopsies and correlate them with the clinical and laboratory characteristics of forty-five patients with COVID-19 from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Forty-four patients were autopsied of which thirty-eight of these (86.36%) were positive by RT-PCR for COVID-19, and six (13.3%) were positive by the serological rapid test. Clinical and radiological findings were compatible with the infection. The patients were classified in two groups: presence (those who had hemorrhagic and/or thrombotic manifestations in the CNS) and absence (those who did not present hemorrhagic and/or thrombotic manifestations in the CNS). For risk assessment, relative risk and respective confidence intervals were estimated. Macroscopic or microscopic hemorrhages were found in twenty-three cases (52,27%). The postmortem gross examination of the brain revealed a broad spectrum of hemorrhages, from spots to large and confluent areas and, under microscopy, we observed mainly perivascular discharge. The association analyses showed that the use of corticosteroid, anticoagulant and antibiotic had no statistical significance with a risk of nervous system hemorrhagic manifestations. However, it is possible to infer a statistical tendency that indicates that individuals with diabetes had a higher risk for the same outcome (RR = 1.320, 95% CI = 0.7375 to 2.416, p = 0.3743), which was not observed in relation to other comorbidities. It is unknown whether the new variants of the virus can cause different clinical manifestations, such as those observed or indeed others. As a result, more studies are necessary to define clinical and radiologic monitoring protocols and strategic interventions for patients at risk of adverse and fatal events, such as the extensive hemorrhaging described here. It is imperative that clinicians must be aware of comorbidities and the drugs used to treat patients with COVID-19 to prevent CNS hemorrhagic and thrombotic events.
ObjectiveTo evaluate three-dimensional translational setup errors and residual errors in image-guided radiosurgery, comparing frameless and frame-based techniques, using an anthropomorphic phantom.Materials and MethodsWe initially used specific phantoms for the calibration and quality control of the image-guided system. For the hidden target test, we used an Alderson Radiation Therapy (ART)-210 anthropomorphic head phantom, into which we inserted four 5mm metal balls to simulate target treatment volumes. Computed tomography images were the taken with the head phantom properly positioned for frameless and frame-based radiosurgery.ResultsFor the frameless technique, the mean error magnitude was 0.22 ± 0.04 mm for setup errors and 0.14 ± 0.02 mm for residual errors, the combined uncertainty being 0.28 mm and 0.16 mm, respectively. For the frame-based technique, the mean error magnitude was 0.73 ± 0.14 mm for setup errors and 0.31 ± 0.04 mm for residual errors, the combined uncertainty being 1.15 mm and 0.63 mm, respectively.ConclusionThe mean values, standard deviations, and combined uncertainties showed no evidence of a significant differences between the two techniques when the head phantom ART-210 was used.
Background The irregular use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and late diagnosis still account for a large part of HIV-associated mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Herein, we describe HIV-associated morbidity among hospitalised HIV/AIDS patients with advanced immunosuppression and assess the comorbidities, laboratory parameters, and immunological markers associated with mortality. Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD) in Manaus, Brazil. In all, 83 participants aged between 12 and 70 years were enrolled by convenience within 72 h of their hospitalisation. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from electronic medical records. We prospectively measured the cytokines Th1/Th2/Th17 and inflammatory cytokines IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-12 using cytometric bead array, and the soluble CD14 using in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The HIV/AIDS inpatients presented a scenario of respiratory syndromes as the most prevalent comorbidity. Almost all patients had CD4 T counts below 350 cells/mL and the mortality rate was 20.5%. Pulmonary tuberculosis, neurotoxoplasmosis and oropharyngeal–esophageal candidiasis were the most prevalent opportunistic infections. TB and weight loss were more prevalent in HIV/AIDS inpatients who died. The Mann Whitney analysis showed that those who died had higher platelet distribution width (PDW) on admission, which is suggestive for platelet activation. The Poisson multivariate analysis showed the prevalence of TB, digestive syndrome and increases in IL-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) associated to death. Conclusions The advanced immunosuppression characterized by the opportunistic infections presented in these HIV/AIDS inpatients was the major factor of mortality. The role of platelet activation in worse outcomes of hospitalisation and the IL-8 associated with the context of advanced immunosuppression may be promising markers in the prediction of mortality in HIV/AIDS patients.
Background: While antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved survival rates of people living with HIV, some regions in Brazil still show a linear trend of growth in the opportunistic infections that cause HIV-associated mortality. We aimed to describe HIV-associated morbidity and mortality among hospitalized medical patients in a tertiary care hospital in Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazon, by investigating clinical data and immunologic biomarkers in order to assess predictive factors of mortality in this patient group. Methods: We prospectively measured concentrations of cytokines Th1/Th2/Th17 and soluble CD14 (sCD14) and reviewed the laboratory parameters and opportunistic infections in outcomes of either death or discharge of eighty-three HIV/AIDS patients who were admitted in 2017-2018 to the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD) in Manaus. Results: The mortality in the sample studied was 20.5%. Tuberculosis (TB) showed a relative risk (RR) =1.86 (confidence interval (CI) 1.14 to 2.81: and p = 0.026), and weight loss was the symptom (RR=1.81; CI: 1.21 to 2.53 and p = 0.007) most highly associated with the death outcome in HIV/AIDS inpatients. Univariable analyses showed that the eosinophil count, platelet distribution width (PDW), and alanine aminotransferase were the only laboratory parameters that differed among patients who died. In relation to cytokines and sCD14 levels, no differences were found between those who died or were discharged. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to predict mortality and showed that individuals with no digestive syndrome (especially the absence of oropharyngeal candidiasis), nor TB are 63% to 76% less likely to die, respectively. In addition, increases in PDW values also decreased the probability of death. Curiously, patients who were discharged showed a trend towards a concomitant increase in PDW and mean platelet volume (MPV) in relation to those who died.Conclusions: Opportunistic infections continue to be major events in morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS patients, and the relationship between increased PDW and the likelihood of survival suggests the need for future studies on innate immune response of platelets in HIV/AIDS inpatients.
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