Parasitic myelopathy caused by Gurltia paralysans in domestic cats is a disease commonly reported in several South American countries. The adult parasite is lodged in the meningeal veins and spinal cord, often causing clinical manifestations of vascular proliferation, thrombophlebitis, and medullary compression. Wild felines are believed to be the definitive hosts of this parasite. The infection occurs through the ingestion of paratenic hosts, but the life cycle of G. paralysans is not yet clearly understood. In this paper, we discuss a case of parasitic myelopathy in a margay (Leopardus wiedii) that died during post-surgical care. Necropsy revealed focal hemorrhages in the thoracolumbar spinal cord. A microscopic examination revealed adult nematodes and eggs inside the veins of subarachnoid space in spinal cord, suggesting G. paralysans infection. This is first description of parasitic myelopathy in a margay in Brazil.
Background: Cryptorchidism is characterized by the incomplete descent of one or both testicles to the scrotum, being a hereditary alteration and frequently an unilateral condition. Besides the sexual and aggressive behaviour, the retained testicle is commonly located in abdominal cavity, being considered a risk factor for neoplasm development. The most common testicular neoplasm reported in mammalian species are Sertoli cell tumors, Leydig cell tumors, seminomas and teratomas. A presumptive diagnosis of testicular tumor can be achieved by ultrasonography, although the definitive diagnosis is obtained only by histopathology. In this report, we are presenting a case of testicular teratoma in an unilateral abdominal cryptorchid horse. Case: A 3 year-old stallion, American Quarter Horse, was attended and presented a right testicle retained inside the abdomen and a left testicle in the scrotum. Transrectal palpation was used to identify a round and firm structure, presumably the right testicle, lateral to the urinary bladder and located inside abdomen. Further, a transrectal ultrasound examination showed a complex, round mass with irregular edges containing both cystic and solid structures, hypoechoic fluid-filled cavities separated by linear hyperechoic septa. After a clinical examination, the animal was diagnosed with cryptorchidism and was submitted to orchiectomy and cryptorchidectomy by inguinal approach. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia and postoperative care included cold shower, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy. Testicles were surgically removed and further sent for histopathological examination. The visual appearance of the right undescended testicle showed multiple round, cystic, and solid structures on outer surface, while the left descended testicle was apparently normal. The macroscopic evaluation showed that the affected testicle consisted of a firm solid mass with multiple fluid-filled cystic areas. Microscopically, the testicular architecture was replaced by cysts, fibrous tissue, adipose tissue, glandular structures, and foci of calcification. The histology revealed that the retained testicle had a testicular teratoma. Discussion: Reproductive disorders are common in horses and represent a significant part of the equine practitioner routine. Equine cryptorchidism is the most common non-lethal developmental defect of stallions. Surgery is the best treatment, since this alteration is hereditary. Teratomas have been reported more often in cryptorchid testicles, being usually just diagnosed as an incidental finding during surgical procedure. Under field conditions, usually the testicles are not sent for histopathological evaluation and this fact can contribute to underdiagnoses. Ultrasonography allows clinicians to determine testis location, morphological changes in the testes, as well as to elaborate a presumptive diagnose of testicular neoplasm. Histopathology is the best exam to achieve definitive diagnoses in the presence of testicular alterations. In our report, diagnosis of tes...
Background: Leptospirosis is considered the most widespread zoonosis worldwide, occurring more frequently in tropical and developing regions. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of Leptospira spp. in different primate tissues, using immunohistochemical (IHC) assays, taking advantage of the considerable number of necropsies compatible with a diagnosis of leptospirosis in neotropical primates at the Animal Pathology Laboratory (APL) of the University of Passo Fundo (UPF) in the northern region of Rio Grande do Sul. Materials, Methods & Results: Paraffin-embedded primate tissue samples were selected from necropsy examinations and subjected to IHC. The streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used with diaminobenzidine chromogen (DAB) to verify immunostaining. Of the101 primates tested for Leptospira spp., 51.48% were positive; taining was distributed between lung (76.92%), liver (44.23%), and kidney (32.69%) tissue. Analysis of the combined anatomopathological verification data of the studied organs revealed a high frequency of lesions commonly observed in the tissues of animals exposed to the pathogen. For complementary diagnosis, an anti-Leptospira spp. antibody test was performed in primates at the UPF-Zoo, from which a population of the necropsied animals originated. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was utilized, which demonstrated 90.47% positivity in 21 individuals; sejroe and panama were the most frequent serovars. Discussion: Different intensities of tissue immunostaining were observed. Areas of fragmented or diffuse staining were considered to indicate equal positivity to that indicated by areas of staining with preserved morphology. Of 52 Leptospirapositive primates, most presented some degree of staining in lung samples, which shows a high level of involvement for this organ in primate leptospirosis. Conventional pathological diagnostic methods do not allow fort issue antigen recognition, thus making the IHC technique important to facilitate conclusive antigen sample verification. In the liver, leptospires were detected mostly between the sinusoids, hepatocytes, and Kupffer cells. In kidney tissues, staining indicated small agglomerates in the tubular lumen, interstitium, and glomeruli. All these forms of presentation have been previously reported. Considering that we detected the highest number of positive samples in lung tissue, followed by those from liver and kidney tissue, we argue that the IHC technique, when applied to samples of these three tissues, decreases the chance of false negatives. Anatomopathological studies of primate leptospirosis are scarce. In dogs, renal lesions are characterized by the necrosis and degeneration of tubular epithelium, cellular debris, and hyaline cylinders. In the liver, hepatocyte cord dissociation and biliary pigment accumulation within the canaliculi and hepatocellular necrosis are observed. These findings are similar to those from our study. In the lung, diffuse alveolar lesions are reported, with hemorrhage and edema, in add...
Background: The Brazilian government has established disease eradication and control programs to protect livestock from pathogens that affect animal health and compromise animal protein production and food safety and quality. Vaccination campaigns against foot-and-mouth disease and other infectious diseases in cattle except brucellosis can be carried out bynon-veterinarian employees. However, vaccination errors can result in the formation of granulomas at injection sites that can affect animal welfare and production. The present study aimed to report two cases of granulomas at injection sites due to the inadvertent administration of vaccines containing saponins and mineral oil as adjuvants.Cases: Case 1. The history was that a 2-year-old Devon steer was down for 7 days and was vaccinated 20 days ago with a vaccine containing saponins and mineral oil as adjuvants. Case 2. A 7-month-old Holstein heifer was examinated due to a 40-day history of ataxia, forelimb paresis progressing to tetraparesis, and vaccination with a vaccine containing saponins and mineral oil as adjuvants 60 days ago. These two animals were admitted in the Veterinary Hospital from the University of Passo Fundo (UPF) with a clinical history of incoordination and permanent decubitus after vaccination. The disease had a similar clinical course in both animals. Clinical signs included the presence of a palpable cervical mass at the site of vaccination, forelimb paresis that progressed to tetraparesis, and decubitus scars. Treatment included intravenousadministration of anti-inflammatory steroids, antibiotic therapy, daily cleansing of the pressure sores, all four limbs were massaged, animals underwent several physiotherapy sessions, slings were used to mantain recumbent patients in a standing position and supportive therapy consisted of fluid therapy and oral supplementation. Animals remained hospitalizedfor approximately 40 days. Pacients experienced temporary improvement during treatment, and would walk with an uncoordinated gait. The clinical picture worsened after treatment was discontinued, necessitating euthanasia. At necropsy, gross lesions were similar in both animals. In case 1, the trapezius was firm and pale and had multiple granulomas whichextended into the cervical vertebral column at C3-C4 and invaded the spinal canal compressing the spinal cord. In case 2, there was extensive damage to the trapezius by granulomatous inflammation; numerous nodular granulomas exuded milky contents. These lesions extended deep into the muscle fibers and infiltrated the vertebral column at C5-C6, with involvement of the medullary canal and spinal cord compression. Microscopically there was severe, diffuse pyogranulomatous myositis. Each pyogranuloma had a central clear space. Nodal architecture was effaced by these inflammatory nodules.Discussion: Some drugs and vaccines contain irritating adjuvants and induce granuloma formation at the inoculation site. In both cattle, vaccines were injected intramuscularly in the cranial third of the neck in close proximity to the cervical vertebrae and surrounding tissues. These vaccines possibly induced an exuberant inflammatory reaction at the inoculationsite. An exacerbated inflammatory response following the administration of adjuvanted vaccines by improperly trained personnel caused substantial tissue damage at the injection site. Severe, locally extensive lesions were found at necropsy affecting adjacent structures including skeletal muscles and spinal cord. The clinical signs of ataxia and forelimb paresis thatprogressed to tetraparesis were due to the marked pyogranulomatous inflammation in C3-C4 in case 1 and in C5-C6 in case 2. The present study reinforces the importance of good farming practices and properly trained personnel working at farms.Keywords: bovine, vaccine, infection site, granuloma, iatrogenic.
RESUMO.-[Fibrossarcoma oral em jararaca (Bothrops pubescens): aspectos anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos.] Uma serpente de cativeiro, fêmea, quatro anos de idade, do gênero Bothrops apresentou aumento de volume no lado esquerdo da cavidade oral, sugerindo tratar--se de neoplasma. A massa foi removida cirurgicamente e enviada para exame anatomopatológico. Dois meses depois foi observado novo aumento de volume no mesmo local, sugerindo recidiva. A lesão foi removida por completo e também enviada para análise. Histologicamente, as duas amostras consistiam de massa altamente celular, composta por células anaplásicas fusiformes organizadas em feixes entrelaçados e distribuídos por toda extensão tecidual e, ocasionalmente, células poligonais arranjadas em fascículos irregulares. A coloração de tricrômico de Masson apresentou quantidade modesta de colágeno sustentando as células neoplásicas. Não foi observado conteúdo PAS-positivo no citoplasma das células neoplásicas. Os achados histológicos e histoquímicos indicavam tratar-se de neoplasma de célu-las fusiformes, porém não era possível sua classificação. A E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org A 4-year-old female captive-bred snake of the genus Bothrops showed swelling on the left side of the oral cavity, suggesting the development of neoplasia. The mass was removed surgically and sent for pathological examination. Two months later a new increase in volume in the same site was observed, suggesting recurrence. The lesion was completely removed and sent for pathological analysis. Histologically, the two-samples consisted of a mass with highly-cell density composed of spindle-shaped anaplastic cells arranged in interwoven bundles, distributed throughout the tissue extension and, occasionally, polygonal cells arranged in irregular fascicles. The Masson trichrome staining showed modest amount of collagen supporting the neoplastic cells. PAS-positive content was not observed in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells. Histological and histochemical findings indicated that it was a spindle cell neoplasm, but the classification was not possible. Immunohistochemistry was requested and performed using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The markers used were anti-vimentin, anti-PCNA, anti-EMA, anti-melan A and anti-melanosome, anti--desmin, anti-actin, anti-CD68 and anti-S100protein. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and PCNA and negative for the other antibodies. The morphology characterization, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of neoplastic cells allowed the definitive diagnosis of oral fibrosarcoma. Oral fibrosarcoma in jararaca (Bothrops pubescens): anatomopathological and immunohistochemical aspects imuno-histoquímica foi requisitada e realizada pelo método streptavidina-biotina-peroxidase, utilizando os anticorpos anti-vimentina, anti-PCNA, Anti-EMA, anti-melan A, anti--HMB45, anti-desmina, anti-actina, anti-CD68 e anti-proteí-na S-100. As células neoplásicas foram imunorreativas para vimentina e PCNA e, negativas para os demais anticorpos. A ca...
This study describes the clinical and pathological picture of a disease followed by death in sheep raised for subsistence, characterized by difficulty in locomotion, sternal decubitus, severe dyspnea, opisthotonos, and pedaling movements, followed by death. The disease occurred in February 2020 in the northern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, due to the consumption of the fruits of Eugenia pyriformis ('uvaia'). All sheep that became ill later died, resulting in morbidity of 68.75% and mortality of 100%. An autopsy revealed the presence of E. pyriformis fruits with or without seeds in the rumen, in addition to the diet provided to the animals. The main histological findings consisted of edema and perivascular cuffs in the frontal telencephalon, nephrosis and glomerular necrosis, in addition to glomerulosclerosis. One sheep had heightened urea and creatinine and lower levels of non-protein thiols. Deaths ceased once animals were prevented from accessing E. pyriformis. These findings confirm that this plant was responsible for the deaths of the animals and point to the possibility of E. pyriformis having neurotoxic and nephrotoxic action on sheep.
O presente estudo objetivou relatar um caso de broncopneumonia abscedativa associada à hérnia diafragmática em ouriço-cacheiro (Sphiggurus villosus). Um ouriço-cacheiro (S. villosus) apresentava apatia e dispneia há meses e houve suspeita de pneumonia. O animal recebeu tratamento, porém foi a óbito e foi submetido a exame anatomopatológico. As alterações macroscópicas foram sugestivas de pneumonia envolvendo os brônquios principais, associada à hérnia diafragmática decorrente da presença de abscesso localizado no pulmão esquerdo. À histopatologia, observou-se severa broncopneumonia abscedativa multifocal crônica com compressão do parênquima pulmonar, atelectasia, enfisema e severa pleurite fibrinossupurativa crônica difusa.
An outbreak of spontaneous intoxication by the pseudofruits of the japanese grape (Hovenia dulcis) was observed in a flock of 270 sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, resulting in the death of nine animals. The clinical picture was characterized by digestive, nervous, and respiratory alterations with progression to death after 15 to 48 hours. The main microscopic findings were hepatic necrosis, necrosis of the rumen and abomasum mucosa, pulmonary edema and atelectasis, kidney degeneration, cerebral spongiosis, and vacuolization of Purkinje neurons. Hovenia dulcis is wide spread in Brazil, especially in the south of the country. However, this is the first report of spontaneous poisoning in sheep caused by its pseudofruits.
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